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Rivers

TermDefinition
Discharge the volume of water flowing in a river per second, measured in cumecs (m^3/s)
Precipitation all forms of moisture that reach the Earth's surface (including rain, snow and dew).
Evaporation the transformation of water droplets into water vapour by heating.
Evapotranspiration the loss of water from a drainage basin into the atmosphere from the leaves of plants.
Surface storage the total volume of water held on the Earth's surface in lakes, ponds and puddles.
Groundwater storage the storage of water underground in permeable rock strata.
Infiltration the downward movement of water into the soil surface.
Percolation the gravity flow of water within soil.
Overland flow the movement of water over the surface of the land, usually when the ground is saturated or frozen or when precipitation is too intense for infiltration to occur.
Throughflow the movement of water downslope within the soil layer
Groundwater flow the deeper movement of water through underlying rock strata
Dynamic equilibrium rivers are constantly changing over time to reach a state of balance with their processes that determine their form. As the flows of energy and materials passing through a river system vary, the river changes to move towards this equilibrium.
Soil moisture the total amount of water, including the water vapour, in an unsaturated soil.
Hydrograph a graph showing for a given point on a stream the discharge, stage (depth), velocity or other property of water with respect to time; a graphical representation of stream discharge (volume/time) during a storm or flood event.
Flood a temporary excess of water which spills over onto land.
Baseflow water that reaches the channel largely through slow throughflow and from permeable rock below the water table.
Storm flow water that reaches the channel largely through runoff. This may be a combination of overland flow and rapid throughflow.
Hydraulic radius the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the channel and thelength of its wetted perimeter.
Wetted perimeter that portion of the perimeter of a stream channel cross-section that is in contact with the water.
Cross-sectional area the total length of the bed and the bank sides in contact with the water in the channel.
Attrition the reuction and rounding of particles of sediment carried in water by repeated collision with each other and the banks and bed of the river.
Abrasion (corrosion) is the rubbing or scouring of the bed and banks by the sedimentary material carried along the river.
Corrosion occurs where rocks dissolve into the water and are carried away.
Topography the arrangement of the natural and artificial physical features of an area.
Simuosity the curving nature of a meander, described as: actual channel length / straight-line distance.
Isostatic changes in sea level resulting from the rise and fall of land masses.
Eustatic changes in sea level induced by variations in the amount of water in the oceans.
Recurrence interval the interval at which particular levels of flooding will occur.
Urbanisation an increase in the proportion of a country's population living in urban areas. It is sometimes used to mean the process of moving from rural to urban areas.
Frequency how often floods occur.
Magnitude the size of the flood.
Interception storage the total volume of water held of the surface of vegetation.
Created by: apeploe