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Ocular Diseases #5

Questions for lens, uvea, uveal disorders

Name five important symptoms in a post operative cataract patient,which should alert you to tell the patient to come in NOW. Increase in pain / Redness (hyperemia) / Decrease in vision / Vomiting with ocular pain / Loss of area of visual field
Name six conditions that could cause an emergency situation for a patient after a cataracts surgery. Intraocular hemorrhage / Infection of inflammation glaucoma (sudden increase in IOP) / Wound leaks / Retinal detachment / Choroidal detachment
How is posterior capsular opacification treated? With a YAG laser
What type of drugs are given to prevent and treat cystoid macular edema in cataract surgical patients? NSAID's - Bromfenac
The end stage of globe (ocular) decompensation is called? Phthisis bulbi
Can you name at seven symptoms and signs of Uveitis? Ciliary injections / Pain / Blurred vision / Cell and flare in the anterior chamber / K.P's on corneal endothelium / Pupil may be miotic (ciliary spasm) / Posterior synechia may be forming
Mutton fat K.P.'s are found with what type of uveitis? Granulomatous
What is the term for white blood cells layered in the anterior chamber? Hypopyon
What is the term for red blood cells in the anterior chamber? Hyphema
What two types of medicines are used to treat most uveitis cases? Corticosteroid (Difluprednate) or Prednisolone and cycloplegics (Atropine)
Posterior synechia is adhesion from where to where? Iris to anterior surface of lens
What occurring factor is usually the cause of retinal detachments? The pull of vitreous adhesions (vitreous traction) to the retina, causing a tear.
What is the most common cause of irreversible blindness (legal) in the US? ARMD
What are the symptoms and signs of dry ARMD? Slow onset of Metamorphopsia, decreased central vision, small blind spots (scotomas), large drusen, and retinal pigment epithelium atrophy and increased and decreased areas of the RPE.
What are the symptoms and signs of wet ARMD? May have sudden loss of central vision due to hemorrhage from a subretinal membrane.
What do you know about asteroid hyalosis? Usually in older people, unilateral, asymptomatic, calcium deposits in the vitrous.
Name two topical corticosteroids. Difluprednate (Durezol) and Prednisolone (Pred forte) - anti-inflammatory drug
Name one topical NSAID Bromfenac (Bromday) - a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Name three cycloplegic drop. Cyclopentolate, Atropine, and Homatropine (used to reduce ciliary spasm (which causes pain) and to prevent or break up posterior synechia)
What are the symptoms of vitreo-retinal traction? Flashes of light (photopsia) in the peripheral field and sometimes floating spots.
What is amaurosis fugax? A TRANSIENT loss of vision in ONE EYE lasting a few seconds to a minute. It is a form of TIA. May be described as a curtain or shade dropping down over vision.
What are the symptoms and signs of a central retinal artery occlusion? PAINLESS total loss of vision, suddenly. Cherry red spot in a whitish opalescent retina.
What are the symptoms and signs of a central retinal vein occlusion? PAINLESS partial loss of vision, suddenly. May be mild to severe. Blood and Thunder retina-dilated veins, flame, blot and dot hemorrhages, and exudates.
Even though the hemorrhages in CRV occlusion may clear, what is the major loss of vision cause? Macular edema.
What is the main factor in causing neovascularization? Ischemia, usually in the retina (areas of non-perfusion of arterial blood)
Neovascularization of the iris is called? Rubeosis iridis
What are the dangers of rubeosis iridis? Hyphema and/or zippering up the angle resulting in severe (neovascular) glaucoma.
What is one of the substances in humans that is released and causes new abnormal blood vessels (neovascularization) to occur? VEGF- Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor
How do we treat disorders with neovasularization? Anti-VEGF agents (-zumabs; Avastin, Lucentis) or intraocular steriods, or lasers.
What type of individual is most likely to develop central serous retinopathy? Young male (20-40), A-type personality, stress.
What are the symptoms of central serous retinopathy? Blurred central vision, metamorphopsia
WHAT diagnosis tools are used in diagnosing and following patients with retinal vascular disorders and macular disorders? Fluorescein angiography and the OCT (Ocular Coherence Tomography)
What are the signs and symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa? Decreased vision, nyctalopia, tunnel vision, photopsia. Tremendous amount of pigment spicules with a waxy pallor of optic nerve.
What do you know about asteroid hyalosis? Usually in older people, unilateral, asymptomatic, calcium deposits in the vitreous.
Created by: Leequa