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Midterm Review

What is the holy book and leader of religious services for Islam? Quran is the holy book, and the leader of religious services is Imam
WHat do Muslims believe about Muhammad? He was the last and greatest prophet
Explain one way in which Islam is similar to Judaism and Christianity. They all teach the same ethical values, are monotheistic, and have the same basic founder
What is the key difference between then Sunni and the Shiites? How their leader is chosen= Shiites - bloodline relative, Sunni - Any male religious Muslim from Muhammad's tribe
How can Muslim centers of learning best be described? Places that made advances in medicine, literature, science, and math
The Muslim civilisation was most known for the development of what field of math? Algebra
What are the holy days for the 3 religions we learned about? Islam - Friday Judaism - Saturday Christianity - Sunday
Where are the customs and laws of Islam such as business practices and marriage found? Sharia
What does Islam mean? To submit to God
What is fasting from sunrise to sunset for a month called in the religion of Islam? Ramadan
Which of the following was the body of civil law created for the Byzantine Empire? Justinian's code of law
What city commanded key trade routes linking Europe and Asia, and was the capital of the Byzantine Empire? Constantinople
What empire did the Abbasids rule? The Muslim Empire
What title did Ivan III use? Tsar, or Czar
What helped cause the decline of the Byzantine Empire? When the Mongols and Turks took over Constantinople, the disruption of trade, and the Bubonic plague
As a result of Mongol rule over medieval Russia, Russian rulers continued the Mongol's use of what? Absolute rule
The Seljuks converted to what religion? Islam
What did the Turk's political and cultural preference for the persian cause? It caused the Seljuks Empire to weaken and the Persian culture to grow
Which civilizations most influenced the development of Russia? The Byzantine and the Mongols Empire's
What culture most influenced the Seljuk culture? The Persian Empire
Why did the Age of Chivalry eventually decline? New technology: long bow
Which developments did the most to end the Middle Ages? The long bow, the Bubonic Plague, the Hundred Years War, and the Great Schism
What impact did the second agricultural revolution have on Medieval society? It increased population because of food surplus
The most important effect of the Hundred Years' war was that it caused the development of what? National Identities in England and France
What was the group of people most responsible for spreading the Bubonic Plague? Traders
How was the Great Schism finally resolved? All three popes were forced to resign, then one pope was finally selected
What was the central issue of the Hundred Years war? The throne of France
What were the rights that the Magna Carta originally defended? The English Nobility
What was the main effect of the Commercial Revolution? More money was available for building businesses
What did the decisions of the English royal courts justice create? English Common Law
What function did craft guilds not perform? Borrow and loan money
How did the Battle of Hastings change the course of English history? Normans took control of England
Who led the Norman conquest of England? William the conquerer
Describe or define the nature of a guild. An association of people who worked at the same occupation
What problems were identified by church reformers during the Middle Ages? Village priests marrying, simony - bishops selling positions in the church, and lay investiture - kings appointing bishops
What was the main goal of the crusades? To regain the holy land
What was the organized effort to drive Muslims from Spain called? The Spanish Reconquista
Who had the authority to declare a squire a knight? A knight
What was the main job of a squire? To help the knight he is apprenticed to, and to learn how to become a knight
What was a page supposed to learn? Manners, and fighting skills
What best describes the events after Charlemagne's death? Left his kingdom to his son, but he wasn't a good leader, so he left it to his three sons, and they fought over the kingdom, resulting in the treaty of Verdun
Who was the leader who brought Christianity to the Franks? Clovis
The feudal system was based on what? A system of loyalties
Who was a knight supposed to fight bravely for? His earthly lord, his heavenly lord, and his lady
Who was a serf? A person who worked on a manor, and was at the bottom of the feudal system?
What was excommunication and interdict? Excommunication was when a church banished a person from the church, and interdict was when a town was excommunicated because of the leader
What was the role of women? Most were powerless, noblewomen had more power than peasant women
What were monasteries? They were religious towns, built by the church, where monks and nuns lived, and copied religious texts
What was the most important contribution that Charlemagne gave to the empire? He united Germanic tribes and the Western Roman Empire
In feudalism, what was a fief? A granted piece of land
Created by: ajpep