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O&G definitions

Description of obstetric and gynaecological terms and problems

Menarche Onset of menstruation (~12 - 13 y.o.)
Thelarche Onset of breast development (~9 - 11 y.o.)
Adrenarche Onset of pubic hair development (~11 - 12 y.o.)
Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) Subjectively excessive bleeding in otherwise normal cycle
Post-coital bleeding (PCB) Bleeding following sexual intercourse
Irregular menstrual bleeding Cycle outside 23-35 days, with >7 day variability
Intermenstrual bleeding Bleeding between periods
Amenorrhoea Absence of periods
Primary amenorrhoea Menarche never occurs
Secondary amenorrhoea Periods cease after >6 months of cycles
Oligomenorrhoea Periods less than once every 35 days
Hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism Insufficient pituitary gland secretion of FSH and LH
Hyperprolactinaemia Elevated blood levels of the hormone prolactin
Hypothyroidism Underactive thyroid, low blood levels of T4
Polycystic ovarian syndrome Many growing follicles in ovary, disordered gonadotrophins.
Dysmenorrhoea Painful menstruation
Primary dysmenorrhoea No pathological cause found on investigation
Secondary dysmenorrhoea Pathology (suggested by other menstrual problems and dyspareunia)
Dyspareunia Pain during intercourse
Superficial dyspareunia Pain at introitus
Deep dyspareunia Pain is felt inside
Uterine polyp Growth of endometrium
Adenomyosis Endometrial tissue within muscularis
Leiomyomata / fibroids Benign smooth muscle tumours
von Willebrand's disease Deficiency of von Willebrand factor (vWF), involved in platelet adhesion
Precocious puberty Menarche prior to 10 y.o.a. or secondary sexual characteristics by 8 y.o.a
Ambiguous sexual development Uncertain genitalia, or mismatch between chromosomal and anatomical sex
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia Deficiency of enzymes involved in steroidogenesis causes virilization and precocious puberty in females
Androgen insensitivity syndrome Inability of cells to respond to androgens causes female anatomy impairs masculinization of males in utero
Guevedoches People with the intersex condition 5-alpha-reductase deficiency
Leiomyosarcomata Malignant tumours of smooth muscle
Haematometra Blood accumulation within uterine cavity
Endometrial carcinoma Malignant tumour derived from endometrium
Endometrium Glandular lining of uterus comprised of functional and basal layers
Aschermann's syndrome Intra-uterine adhesions following damage to basal layer of endometrium
Cervical ectropion Columnar epithelium visible around the os
Cervical transformation zone Squamous metaplasia in everted endocervix at the squamo-columnar junction
Nabothian follicles Formed from squamous epithelium overlying cervical secretory columnar epithelium
Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) A premalignant condition confined to epithelium
CIN I Dysplastic changes in lower 1/3 of epithelium
CIN II Dysplastic changes in lower 2/3 of epithelium
CIN III Carcinoma in situ / full thickness dysplasia
Human papilloma virus DNA virus implicated in aetiology of cervical neoplasia
HPV 16 and 18 Particularly high risk strains
HPV 6 and 11 Lower risk, causes genital warts
Chocoloate cysts Ovarian endometriosis
Lichen sclerosus (et atrophicus) Painful and itchy autoimmune condition of vulva with skin thinning and loss of pigmentation
Bartholin's glands A pair of mucous secreting glands posterior to labia minora
Bartholin's abscess Infection of Bartholin's glands with duct blockage
Cystocoele Prolapse of the bladder into the vagina
Rectocoele Prolapse of the rectum into the vagina
Uterine prolapse Prolapse of the uterus into the vagina
Procidentia The entire uterus has prolapsed out of the vagina
Enterocoele Prolapse of the pouch of Douglas into the vagina
Detrusor muscle Smooth muscle wall of the bladder
Stress incontinence Involuntary passage of urine when intra-abdominal pressure exceeds that of the neck of the bladder
Urge incontinence Involuntary passage of urine preceded by a desire to void
Acute urinary retention Inability to pass urine for > 12 hours, not due to oliguria.
Painful bladder syndrome Functional syndrome of suprapubic pain on bladder filling
Endometriosis Endometrial tissue outside the uterus
Dyschezia Pain on passing stool
Chronic pelvic pain > 6 months of pain not purely related to menstrual cycle, often functional
Vaginal candidiasis Fungal infection with C. albicans in vagina
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) Replacement of normal commensals with mixed flora incl. anaerobes
Clue cells Microscopic appearance of various organisms in epithelial cells suggestive of BV
Chlamydia A common STI (often asymptomatic), implicated in PID
Gonorrhoea An STIwith potentially serious sytemic complications
Reiter's syndrome / reactive arthritis Urethritis, conjunctivitis and arthritis.
Condylomata acuminata Genital warts caused by HPV infection
Genital herpes Infection with HSV2 causing a painful vesicular rash
Syphilis STI causing painless ulceration
Trichomoniasis Infection with flagellate protozoan
Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) Pelvic infection caused by ascending organisms, can result in sub-fertility
Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome Perihepatitis as a complication of PID
Subfertility Lack of conception after a year of regular unprotected intercourse
Primary subfertility Female has never conceived
Secondary subfertility Female has conceived before
Anovulation Failure to produce an egg
Venous thrombosis Coagulation of blood within veins, a risk of the COC
Contraception Methods and devices used to prevent conception. Hormonal and barrier methods most effective.
Menopause The cessation of menstruation due to loss of ovarian activity
Perimenopause The time preceding and up to 12 months after menopause
Premature menopause Menopause prior to 40 y.o.a.
Post menopausal bleeding Bleeding after the menopause, important to exclude carcinoma
Osteoporosis Thinning of trabecular bone, a problem in postmenopausal women
Spontaneous miscarriage Foetus dies or delivers dead before 24 weeks (inclusive)
Threatened miscarriage Bleeding, but all else normal
Inevitable miscarriage Bleeding + cervical os open
Incomplete miscarriage Some foetal parts passed
Complete miscarriage All foetal parts passed, uterus contracted and os closed
Septic miscarriage The contents of the uterus are infected
Missed miscarriage The foetus has failed to develop or died in utero
Recurrent miscarriage 3 or more consecutive miscarriages
Ectopic pregnancy The embryo has implanted outside the uterine cavity
Hyperemesis gravidarum Nausea and vomiting sufficient to cause weight loss, dehydration or electrolyte disturbances
Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia / molar pregnancy Tumour of trophoblastic tissue
Choriocarcinoma Malignant tumour of trophoblastic tissue
Pfannenstiel incision Lower transverse incision
Alpha foetoprotein (AFP) Produced by the foetal liver, elevated levels suggest neural tube defects
Edward's syndrome Trisomy 18
Patau syndrome Trisomy 13
Klinefelter's syndrome 47 XXY
Turner's syndrome 45 X0
Polyhydramnios Excess amniotic fluid
Gastroschisis Free loops of bowel in the amniotic cavity
Foetal hydrops Accumulation of fluid in 2 or more areas within the foetus
Cytomegalovirus Virus that can be transmitted to the foetus in utero
Herpes simplex Virus that carries a high foetal mortality
Rubella Virus causing foetal deafness. Mothers immunized
Pregnancy induced hypertension b.p. > 140/90 mmHg
Pre-existing hypertension Hypertension present prior to pregnancy
Pre-eclampsia Inflammatory, multisystem disease of pregnancy, causing hypertension and proteinuria (etc)
Eclampsia Grand-mal seizures, treat with MgSO4
Gestational diabetes Development of glucose intolerance during pregnancy
Rhesus isoimmunization Maternal immune response against foetal erythrocytes
Preterm delivery Delivery between 24 and 37 weeks
Antepartum haemorrhage Bleeding after 24 weeks
Placenta praevia Low-lying placenta (marginal and major)
Placental abruption Separation of the placenta from the uterus before delivery
"Small for dates" Less than 10th centile
Foetal compromise When the conditions for foetal growth are not optimal
Intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) Foetal growth is slowed or tails off, NB not necessarily small for dates
Foetal distress An acute situation resulting in death or disability if delivery does not occur promptly
Prolonged pregnancy >42 weeks inclusive
Abnormal lie Transverse and oblique
Breech presentation Feet down (extended, flexed or footling)
External cephalic version A manual method to attempt to rotate foetus to gain longitudinal lie
Multiple pregancy Twins > 1 in 100, triplets about 1 in 1000
Dizygotic twins Twins from two oocytes
Monozygotic twins Resulting from division of a single zygote
Dichorionic diamniotic twins Separate placentas and amnions
Monochorionic diamniotic twins Shared placenta
Monochorionic monoamniotic twins Shared placenta and amnion,
Mechnical factors of labour 3 Ps: powers, passage, and passenger
Shoulder dystocia An obstetric emergency. Shoulders fail to deliver after head
Erb's palsy (Waiter's tip) Damage to C5 and 6, can be caused by excessive head traction
Cord prolapse Obstetric emergency. Cord descends below foetus, compression causes hypoxia
Amniotic fluid embolism Obstetric emergency. Amniotic fluid in maternal vasculature, 80% mortality
The puerperium The period up to 6 weeks post delivery
Post partum haemorrhage Bleeding after delivery
Created by: s0911751