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theories of human development: stage theories

who developed the psychoanalytic theory freud
describe the basis of the psychoanalytic theory states that unconscious motivations affect behavior and that early childhood experiences are critical informing personality
these are thoughts of which we are aware conscious
these are info/thoughts that are available if we draw attention to them preconscious
these are thoughts of which we are not aware unconscious
Freud divided mental life into three components twice. the first tri-partate division is.. levels of consciousness (preconscious, conscious, unconscious)
the second tri-partate is... parts of our personality (id, ego, superego)
this part of your personality is driven by mores of our culture superego
this part of our personality is our pleasure principle id
this part of our personality is the reality principle and balances the id and superego ego
freud believed that people are naturally... selfish and aggressive
according to freud, what makes us behave in civilized ways, and ignore our selfish and aggressive behaviors? culture and society
how do people block their inappropriate innate desires? via defense mechanisms
list the mature defense mechanisms altruism, sublimation, humor, suppression
list the immature defense mechanisms acting out, denial, displacement, dissociation, identification, intelelctualization, isolation of affect, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, somatization, splitting, undoing
in this defense mechanism, a person helps others to avoid negative emotions. example: a wealthy man's wife dies of cancer. He funds the next cancer research institute, and this is his way of dealing with grief altruism
in this defense mechanism, person is talking or joking about something painful or unpleasant in a way that makes self or others laugh humor
in this defense mechanism, there is channeling an unaccepetable drive or desire into a socially acceptable format. Ex: doing boxing or martial arts instead of punching someone in the face when you're mad at them sublimation
in this defense mechanism, you deliberately put aside unwanted feelings without becoming totally unaware of them. Ex: when loved a loved one dies, after months of bereavement, you write thoughts down in journal, then try to put it away rest of week. supprssion
this defense mehcanism is seen especially in kids. they avoid feelings by attention getting, inappropriate behavior. ex: a kid's dad travels all the time and he doesn't get to see him and acts out in school acting out
in this defense mechanism, there is transfer of emotions form an unacceptable to an acceptable person or object. ex: you have a crush on your best friends gf, which is not ok, so you jump into another relationship prematurely to redirect your feelings displacement
separation of funciton of mental processses (trying not to worry about something) dissociation
imitating someone who is powerful Ex: identifying with someone else identification
using higher mental funcitons to avoid emotions, ex: doctors in medical care do this a lot- if you're a doctor and you are dying, intellectualizing what will happen to you when you leave intellectualization
fail to experience a powerful feelings even though understanding the event isolation of affect
attributing one's own unacceptable feelings to others: ex: if you have homnosexual deep feelings, you stay away from gay people projection
giving reasonable explanations for unaccceptable feelings rationalization
dneying unacceptable feelings and adopting opposite attitudes. ex: saying you hate someone when you really love them reaction formation
appearance of childlike patterns of behavior during stressful situations. ex: college student taking a teddy bear to a hospital, and wanting her mom to be with her regression
turning an unaccpetable impulse or feeling into a physical symptom (ex: you are upset and your arm becomes paralyzed) somatization
believing people or events are iether all bad or all good because of intolerance of ambiguity splitting
erasing unacceptable event in the past by adopting acceptable behavior in the present (superstitious behavior). ex: you walked into a pile of mud yesterday, but today you're ok because you threw salt over your shoulders ahead of time undoing
a hospitalized 28 year ol dstudent asked to have a night light on during the night and holds a teddy bear during blood draws. what denfense mechanism is it? regression
when dr. lovett says something good you think she is great but when she says something goofy you think she is horrible. what defense mechanism? splitting
who developed the stage theory of identity across the life span erikson. he was heavily influenced by Freud, and trained in psychoanalysis
eriksons stages
what crisis is going on in the first year of life trust vs. mistrust (faith in the environment and nature events vs. suspicion, and fear of future events)
what crisis is going on in the second year of life autonomy vs. doubt (a sense of self control and adequacy vs. feelings of shame and self doubt)
what crisis is going on in years 3-5 initiative vs. guilt (ability to be a "self starter" to initiate one's own activities vs. a sense of guilt and inadequacy to be on one's own)
what crisis is going on in years 6-puberty industry vs. inferiority (ability to learn how things work, to understand and organize vs. a sense of inferiority at understanding and organizing)
what crisis is going on in adolescence identity vs. confusion (seeing oneself as a unique and integrated person vs. confusion over who and what one really is
what crisis is going on during early adulthood intimacy vs. isolation (ability to make commitments to others, to love, vs. inability to form affectionate relationship
what crisis is going on in middle age years generosity vs. self adsorption (concern for family and society in general vs. concern for only self, one's own well being an dprosperity
what crisis is going in the aging years integrity vs. despair (a sense of integrity an dfulfillment, willingness to face death vs. dissatisfactionwith life, despair over prospect of death
a 27 year old man recently finishes his MBA and is employed on wallstreet. He spends his free time mostly with fantasy football. he has had a series of brief relationships with women. which of eriksons stages might he be in? intimacy vs. isolation
this psychologist is famous for his developmental stage theory which posits that cognitive development is the driving force and that children figuoure out their world through observation and interaction. assimilation and accomodation are mechanismsoflearn piaget
piaget stage of birth to 18 months: baby is learning about the world through senses sensorimotor stage
piaget stage 18 months - 7 years. child is starting to develop symbolic thoughts but not that logical. world works through cause and effect relationships preoperational
this piaget stage occurs form 7 years through adolescence. child has a mature aspect on cause and effect concrete operational stage
this piaget stage occurs from adolescence through adult. person understands concepts of love, justice, peace, etc. abstract operations stage
give the piaget stage: intelligence in action: child interacts with environment by manipulating objects sensorimotor
give the piaget stage: thinking dominated by perception, but child becomes more and more capable of symbolic functioning; language development occurs; child still unduly influenced by own perception of environment pre-operational
give the piaget stage: logical reasoning can only be applied to objects that are real or can be seen concrete operations
give the piaget stage: individual can think logically about potential events or abstract ideas formal operations
part 2: behaviorism, temperament, attachment
increase in number and size of cells and size of organism growth
genetically programmed unfolding of the organism's physiologic capacities maturation
the progress of a person's functioning that results from growth, maturation, and interaction with the environment development
this thoery states that you learn form your environmnet- not because you are rewarded for any particular behavior but because of habituation nonassociative learning
augmentation of a response because of repeated stimuli sensitization
imitative or observational learning imitative learning (modeling)
in this type of learning, you relate one thing to another associative learning
what are two examples of associative learning classical conditioning, operant conditioning
pavlog's dog experiment is an example of what kind of conditioning classical conditioning
after a while, the association will diminish if it is not reinforced. for example, if the dog hears the bell at random times, not associated with the appearance of food, it will no long erassociate the two. it will no longer salivate to the bell extinction
give some examples of associations that are more resistant to extinction vomitous stimuli and response, certain patterns of reinforcement create associations which are more or less resistant to extinction
a behavior is emitted in anticipation of an event (reinforcer) operant conditioning
give examples of reinforcement positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, punish/adverse conditioning
in operant conditioning, a stimulus is applied, and increases the likelihood of the behavior occurs, is called what? positive reinforcement
in operant conditioning, a stimulus is applied, but it decreases the likelihood of the behavior positive punisment (ex: spanking)
in this operant conditioning, a stimulus is taken away and it increases the likelihood of the behavior negative reinforcement (reward is no chores)
in this operant conditioning, a stimulus is taken away and it increases the likelihood of the behavior negative punishment punishment (no allowance)
in this reinforcement ratio, reinforcement is seen after a certain number of behaviors fixed ratio
in this reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is seen after a certain amount of time fixed interval
in this type of reinforcement, reinforcement is seen after a variable number of behaviors variable ratio
in this reinforcement schedule, reinforcement is seen after a variable amount of time variable interval
which reinforcement schedule is most resistant to extinction? variable ratio
this method of reinforcement is used in inpatient settings and other environments where intensive behavior management is needed. (ex: mental hospitals, prisons). subjects eran token/fake money or some other objects that can later be traded for something. token economies. also used in elementary schools and prisons.
younger children need reinforcement which is (more/less) immediate, and (more/less) concrete more immediate (within seconds), more concrete
can older children have delayed or token reinforcers? give examples yes. grades, allowance, check mark on a chores list
what percent of what we do or what we like is due to genetics? about half.
a person who actually has the trait being studied is called what proband
describe concordance rates studies concordance rates compare similarity for a trait between a person who has the trait and another person of some determined relationship to the "proband". the other person could be random, parent, sibling, DZ twin, MZ twin.
what are the monozygotic concordance rates of schizophrenia fifty percent
what are the dizygotic concordance rate for schizophrenia ten percent
what is the schizophrenia rate for the general population .5-1 percent
describe the twin adoption study design identical twins raised in different environments are studied.
what is a criticism of twin studies? twins, generally, are raised in the same home and therefore, have the same environments in addition to having the same (in the case of MZ twins) genes
this describes an inborn personality traits of each individual temperament
what are temperament behavior styles that are positive for a child to have increased in the following: rhythmicity, adaptability, responsiveness, quality of mood, attention span
what percent of children are considered "easy", aka regular and pleased forty percent
what percent of children are considered difficult: aka react intensely, irregular, tends to withdraw, adapts poorly ten percent
describe a child with a slow to warm up temperament first shows mild negative response to new situation but then adapts
what environmental factors can affect a child's temperament household makeup, SES, income level, culture/subculture, etc
describe parent-child attachment children are attached to their caregiver. (called phylogenic pattern). young children in every culture try to maintain proximity to their attachment figure
prximity seeking/maintaing increases when child has these feelings... upset/threatened
proximity seeking/maintaining increases when child has these feelings security
is human attachment a universal behavior? yes
describe the ainsworth test to determine human child attachment parent and child alone in a room, child explores room w/o parental participation, stranger enters room, talks to parent, approaches child, parent quietly leaves room, parent then returns and comforts child
in this attachment style, a child references parent and seeks proximity when stranger enters, may be upset upon parental departure, seeks parent upon return secure
in this attachment style, child does not reference parent or seek proximity when stranger enters, is not upset at sepration, and no response when parents return insecure avoidant
in this attachment style, a child references parent and seeks proximity when stranger enters, upset upon parental departure, difficult to console upon return insecute ambivalent
this style is ahealthy style, present in about sixty percent of children. correlated with good long term outcomes (educaitonal, psychological, social, economic) secure
this is an unhealthy style, present in about twenty percent of children. they appear standoffish, doesn't care if parents come and go. a little too independent. correlated with delinquency, educational problems insecure avoidant
this style is found in about twenty percent of kids, they are overly dependent, cry and are inconsolable. correlated with emotional problems twenty percent
a 2 yr old child is given vaccination in pediatricians office. after the shot, child is cranky, incolsoleable, and is on mothers lap. child is pulling mothers hair to hang on, while also resisting her during cuddle. what is childs attachment style? insecure ambivalent
Created by: aferdo01