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Limbic System

Role of the limbic system in memory and emotion

What two main regions of the brain are critical to memory formation? medial temporal lobe (which include sthe hippocampal formation and the adjacent cortex of the parahippocampal gyrus), medial diencephalic memory areas (which include the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus,the anterior nucleus of the thalamus,mammillarybdies,etc
what is the main function of the hippocampal formation? consolidate the long term memories form intermediate and short term memories
the hippocampal formation has input and output connections with this structure... the association cortex,
the hippocampal formation has input and output connections with the association cortex mainly via this structure... entorhinal cortex. these connections are particularly important for memory
the hippocampal formation has connections with these subcortical areas mammillary bodies, mediodorsal nucleus, other medial diencephalic nuclei, and septal nuclei
the hippoccampal formation is made up of what? hippocampus, the dentate gyrus, subiculum
the hippocampus can be divided into these four areas... CA1-CA4
where is CA1 located? ubiculum hippocampal interface
CA2 and CA3 are located where? within the hippocampus
CA4 is located where? at the junction fo the hippocampus with the dentate gyrus but within the hilus of the dentate gyrus
the major input tothe hippocampal formation is from the _______________ via ____________- entorhinal cortex, diffuse projection called the perforant pathway
what other structure projects tot he hippocampus? entorhinal cortex
the hippocampal formation receives cholinergic input from the _________ septal nuclei an dbasal forebrain through the fornix
the major efferent connection of the hippocampal formation is the... fornix
axons in the fornix have these three main targets... subiculum to the medial and lateral mamillary nuclei of the hypothalamus, subiculum to the lateral septal nucleus, subiculum and hippocampus to the aterior thalamic nucleus
cholinergics from the septal and basal forebrain input to the hippocampus via... fornix
the entorhinal is hte cortex of what gyrus? parahippocampal
the hippocampal formation structures communicate with the association cortex through.... bidirection connections with the entorhinal cortex
the medial diencephalic memory systems communicate with the medial temporal memory systems (hippocampal formation) through the.... fornix and throught heamygdalafugal pathway
what are the two classifications of memory? declarative (explicit) and nondeclarative (implicit)
examples of declarative memory... facts, events
examples of nondeclarative memory... skills and habits, priming, simple classical conditioning, nondissociative learning (things you learn unconsciously)
this clasification of memory involves the conscious recollection of facts or experiences delcarative memory (explicit memory)
this classification of memory involves the non-conscious learning of skills, habits, and other acquired behaviors non delcarative memory (implicit)
blateral temporal lobe or bilateral medial diencephalic lesions are typical of... selective loss of delcarative memory
do unilateral lesions usually produce a severe memory loss? no
unilateral lesion sof the odminant medial temporal or medial diencephalic structures may cause tihs.. deficits in verbal memory
unilateral lesions of hte non-dominant hemisphere may cause deficits in this... visual-spatial memory
do specific lesions result in clinically significant loss of a non-declarative memory? no
learning skills and habits most likely involve several areas including... basal ganglia, cerebllum, and motor cortex
this type of memory is described by the ability to repeat back lists of digits or words forward and backward working memory
working memory operates on a time scale of... less than 1 or two minutes
working memory depends on... an intact dorsolateral prefrontal association cortex and unimodal and heteromodal specific association cortices
this type of memory is described by the ability to recall recent events recent or consolidated memory
recent/consolidated memory operates on a time scale of... less than five minutes to years
recent/consolidated memory depends on... an intact medial temporal and diencephalic sturctures which mediate a process by which delcarative memories are consolidated in the neocortex
this memory operates on a time scale of five yeras, and the memories are recalled through the activity of specific regions of the neocortex without requiring medial temporal or diencephalic involvement remote memory
this is a proposed mechanism of consolidation of short term memories into long term long term potentiation at indivdual synapses
how does long term potentiation work? one synapse fires in a particular temporal pattern that increases the likelihood that target cells will be activated.
how does LTP work? release of GLU cauess a change in NMDA type GLU receptors of cells of the hippocampus allowing an increased number of calcium ions to enter the cell. Ca influx causes a second postsynaptic change. NO is released and idffuses back topresynapticterminal
what happens once it's back to the presynaptic terminal? it acts to permanently increase the release of glutamate.
what are two examples of diseases that affect memory? anzheimers, Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
this disease preferentially affects the bilateral hippocampal, temporal, and basal forebrain structures Alzheimers disease
this disease is caused by thiamine deficiency, seen most often in alcoholics, but also occassionally in patients on chronic parenteral nutrition. they have bilateral necrosis of the mammillary bodies and of a variety of medial diencephalic nuclei wernicke-korsakoff syndrome
this is a group of nulcei located in the anteriormedial temporal lobe. it represents an interconneciton between the association cortex and subcortical structure, in particular the hypothalamus. it also has direct connections with olfactory structures. amygdaloid complex
this structure plays a role in emotions and drives and participates in all limbic fuctions including autonomic and endocrine control, olfaction, emotional aspects of memory (ex: fear memory), and emotions. Amygdala
incrased activity of the amygdala is associated with what? fear, anxiety, phobias, rage
although the amygdala does not play a direct role in memory, it does play a role in this... the association of memory with emotional states
this structure is responsible for associating a memory with something awful amygdala
what are three components of the amygdaloid complex basolateral nucleus, corticomedial nucleus, central nucleus
this is the largest of the three nuclei in the amygdaloid complex, predominantly involved in direct and indirect connections of the amygdala to diverse cortical areas as well as to the basal forebrain and medial thalamus basolateral nucleus
this part of the amygdala complex derives its name from its corticoid structure and location on the medial surface of the temporal pole near the forebrain and olfactory areas. It is involved with interactions with the hypothalamus and related to apetite corticomedial nucleus
this part of the amygdalaloid complex is the smallest and has connections with the hypothalamus and brainstem that are important in autonomic control central nucleus
most connections to the amhygdala are... bidirectional
the amygdala receives and transmits information form heteromedial association cortex and limbic cortex through these two pathways fibers pass posteriorly and laterally from the amygdala to reach most cortical areas, often via relays in the anterior temporal and insular cortices,
connections that are mainly efferent from the amygdala but may have a small afferent component pass through these two major pathways: the stria terminalis and the ventral amygdalafugal pathway
this structure contains fibers connecting the amygdala with the hypothalamus and septal areas the stria terminalis
this pathway contains fibers conneting the amygdala to forebrain and brain stem structures the ventral amygdalafugal pathway
what are some symptoms of kuver-buncy syndrome (bilateral lesions of the amygdala)? decreased aggression, unable to retrieve or learn associations between stimuli (ex: an aggressive enemy), and emotional response (fear, flee now), same deficits as lesions of the hypothalamus, but less severe
what structures convert translation of seeing a tiger to a flight response? spinal cord, cranial nerve, neurohumoral pathways
amygdala activity decreases in this disease urbach-Wiethe disease
amygdala activity increases in this disorder PTSD
what is the main function of the hippocampus? convert short term memories to long term
a 35 year ol dpresents to the clinic with CC of waking at night to disagreeable odor and a feeling of panic. the most likely site of the leasion is... olfactory cortex and amygdala
Created by: aferdo01