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Cancer part 1

Sem 1 - breast cancer

What makes a tumour benign? It's slow growing and is contained in a fibrous capsule (so it will not metastasize)
Where do carcinomas originate? Epithelial cells
Where do leukemias develop? In blood-forming tissues such as bone marrow
Where do sarcomas originate? In bone and other connective tissues
What percentage of cancers are hereditary? 5-10% (but cancer is always a genetic disease)
What is an oncogene? A gene that causes cell division to accelerate out of control; sometimes by inducing excessive secretion of growth factors that stimulate mitosis, or the production of excessive growth factor receptors
What must happen to an oncogene to promote cancer? 1) Gain of function 2) Dominant 3) One copy of the gene needs to be activated
What do tumour-suppressor genes do? Inhibit by opposing oncogene action, coding for DNA-repair enzymes
What type of mutation must happen to tumour-suppressor genes to cause cancer? 1) Loss of function 2) Recessive - both copies of the gene need to be inactivated
What are the 6 successful qualities of a cancer cell? 1)Independent of external growth signals 2)Insensitive to external anti-growth signals 3) Able to avoid apoptosis 4) Capable of indefinite replication 5) Capable of sustained angiogenesis 6) Capable of tissue invasion and metastasis
What are the different types of cancer? Familial (genetic-1%) and Sporadic (non-genetic-99%)
What are familial cancers mostly caused by? Autosomal dominant traits and due to inherited mutations of tumour suppressor genes
What can cause sporadic cancers? Exposure to carcinogenic agents and unrepaired DNA replication errors
What do sporadic cancers result in? Somatic activation/inactivation of cancer genes
What growth factors do oncogenes secrete? EGF and PDGF
Which cyclins/cyclin-dependent kinases do oncogenes use? Cyclin D1, CDK4
What are the main groups of tumour suppressor genes? -Antiproliferative (eg CDKN2A, RB) -Pro-apoptotic (eg TP53) -DNA repair and genome stability (eg MSH2, MSH6, TP53 and BRCA1)
What is carcinogenesis driven by? Clonal selection and genomic instability
What is the tumour of origin called? The primary tumour or primary neoplasm
What is the process called when cancer spreads to surrounding cells? Invasion
What is the process called when malignant cells travel to distant tissues and organs and establish secondary tumours? Metastasis
Which base sequences do telomeres consist of? Repeats of TTAGGG
Which enzyme creates the telomeres? Telomerase
When is telomerase active? Active in early life, but inactive in adulthood
What happens when telomerase is abnormally mutated? The abnormal cells continue to divide indefinitely
What can malignant tumours do that benign tumours cannot? Spread by invasion and metastasis
What 5 main categories does the summary staging system class cancers as? 1) In Situ 2) Localised 3) Regional 4) Distant 5) Unknown
Which staging system is commonly used to classify cancers? TNM staging
What does each letter of the TNM system stand for? T: size and/or extent of primary tumour N: whether cancer cells have spread to nearby regional lymph nodes M: whether metastasis or the spread of the cancer to other parts if the body has occurred
What would breast cancer described as T3 N2 M0 mean? A large tumour that has spread outside the breast to nearby lymph nodes but not to the other parts of the body
What are the T stages of primary tumour? TX: Primary tumour cannot be established T0: No evidence of primary tumour Tis: Carcinoma In Situ T1,T2,T3,T4: Size and/or extent of cancer
What are the N stages of regional lymph nodes? NX: regional lymph nodes cannot be evaluated N0: No regional lymph node involvement N1,N2,N3: degree of regional lymph node involvement (number and location of lymph nodes)
What are the M stages od distant metastasis? MX: Distant metastasis cannot be evaluated M0: No distant metastasis M1: Distant metastasis is present
What is an invasive ductal carcinoma? Invasive: Cancer has invaded or spread to the surrounding tissues of the breast Ductal: the cancer began in the milk duct Carcinoma: any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues than internal organs
What percentage of all breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinomas responsible for? 80%
What might treatments for invasive ductal carcinoma involve? Surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, biological therapy
What are the 2 types of needle biopsies that might be done to a cancer? Fine needle biopsy and core biopsy
What name is given to the process od diagnosing diseases by looking at single cells, or a small cluster of cells? Cytology or Cytopathy
What are cancer biopsies looked at for? -Size and shape of the cells -Size and shape of the cell's nucleus -Arrangement of the cells
What other test might pathologists use to determine if a cancer is ductal or lobular? E-cadherin
What are microcalfications? Calcium deposits found in both cancerous and non-cancerous breast tissue
What might microcalcifications indicate? Certain patterns of calcification (eg tight clusters with irregular shapes) may indicate breast cancer
What are some common causes of benign breast calcifications? 1)Calcium within the fluid of a benign cyst 2)Calcifications associated with a dilated milk duct 3)An old injury to the breast 4)Inflammation due to infection 5)Skin calcifications caused by dermatitis or metallic residues from powder 6)Radiation
What happens to the cortex of an abnormal lymph node? Tends to become markedly hypoechoic (gives off few echoes in ultrasonography)
Created by: SandersE