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Early Morphogenesis

WVSOM Class of 2012 Early Morphogenesis

QuestionAnswer
what is neurulation? formation of the neural tube
what does the neural tube form? CNS
the notochord causes the overlying ectoderm to differentiate into what structure? the neural plate
the neural plate forms from what tissue? neuroectoderm
the neural folds depress to form what? neural groove
the neural groove inverts and fuses to form? neural tube
the openings persisting before the final closure are called what? cranial and caudal neuropores
once closure is complete, what phase is completed? neurulation
the posterior of the neural tube forms what? spinal cord
the broad anterior portion of neural tube forms what? brain vesicles
lateral borders of the neural folds are called what? neural crests
after closure, the neural crest cells dissociate into what? what tissue are these cells derived from? mesenchymal cells; ectodermal
what are loosely woven, embryonic stem cells derived from the germ layer? mesenchyme
3 layers that the mesoderm differentiate into are? the paraxial, intermediate, and lateral mesoderm
which portion of the mesoderm differentiates into the urogenital system? intermediate
what develops in lateral mesoderm by coalescence of spaces? coelom
somatic mesoderm and ectoderm are called what? somatopleure
splanchnic mesoderm and endoderm are called what? splanchnopleure
the early embryonic coelom is open to what? chorionic cavity
the paraxial mesoderm segments into what? somitomeres
in anterior region, the somitomere forms near the neuromere and forms what? head mesenchyme
somitomeres in what regions become somites? medial and posterior
the somites differentiate into what 3 layers? sclerotomes, dermotomes, myotomes
what forms the bone and cartilage of vertebrae? sclerotomes
gut formation is what kind of process? passive
what structure connects the gut to the body and is the stalk of the yolk sac? viteline duct
the anterior end of the foregut that is anchored by the precordial plate is called what? the buccopharyngeal membrane
posterior of hindgut is anchored by what? the cloacal membrane
mesenchymal cells that form blood differentiate into what? angioblasts
cytotrophoblast cells that become organized into columns, extending into the syncytiotrophoblast (forming a major portion of the placenta) are called what? chorionic villi
cytotrophoblast cells surrounded by the synctiotrophoblast, these are the progenitors of all chorionic villi: primary villi
these structures are formed when extraembryonic mesoderm penetrates, producing mesodermal cores: secondary villi
villi that extend through the syntiotrophoblast are called what? stem villi
the maternal component of the placenta in endometrium is what? decidua
what is the name for hemolytic disease of the newborn? erythroblastosis fetalis
what is the most common Rh-antigen producing isoimmunization? D
what tissue generates the central and peripheral nervous systems, sensory epithelia of ears, nose and eyes, epidermis including hair and nails, subcutaneous and mammary glands, pituitary gland and teeth enamel? ectoderm
the lateral edges of the neural plate elevate to form what structures? neural folds
the cranial and caudal neuropores are open to what cavity? amniotic
what cells are stem cells for numerous structures (ganglia and cranial nerves, schwann cells, melanocytes, adrenal medulla, craniofacial bones, connective tissues and conotruncal heart cushions)? neural crest cells
what tissue produces muscle, connective tissue, cartilage and bone, blood and blood vessels, kidneys, spleen, gonads and suprarenal cortex? mesoderm
the somatopleure will develop into what structures? the lateral and ventral walls of the body cavity
In the cervical and thoracic regions the intermediate mesoderm produces segmental clusters known as what? nephrotomes
the somites' ventral and medial walls lose cohesion, producing mesenchymal cells that surround the notochord. These cell clusters are known as what? sclerotomes
after the ventral and medial walls of the somite lose cohesion, the remaining dorsal walls are called what? dermomyotomes
what "tomes" differentiate into the muscles attached to each vertebra? myotomes
what "tomes" produce the underlying dermis of the skin? dermatomes
what tissue produces the digestive tract, as well as epithelia and stromata for numerous other organ structures? endoderm
the embryonic circulatory system runs through which structures? embryonic mesoderm, including the heart tube, splanchnic extraembryonic mesoderm, somatic extraembryonic mesoderm and connecting stalk
when embryonic blood vessels develop in the cores, what villi are created? tertiary villi
Cytotrophoblast cells spread out between the syncytiotrophoblast and endometrium to form an epithelium known as what? outer cytotrophoblast shell
The lacunar network of the decidua expands and coalesces into what spaces between the villi? intervillous spaces
Created by: mhassan on 2008-08-26



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