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Chapter 14

Identify and Define

Lorenzo de Medici A clever politician and a patron of arts.
Francesco Petrarch A lyric poet who perfected a form of poetry known as the sonnet.
Leonardo de Vinci An inventor and artist. Most famous for "Last Supper" and "Mona Lisa."
Michelangelo Sculptor, musician, poet, painter, and architect. Famous for "Sistine Chapel."
Raphael Painter who painted "Assumption of the Virgin," and "School of Athens."
Baldassare Castiglione Wrote books about manners, skills, learning, virtues of a member of court.
Niccolo Machiavelli Wrote "The Prince" the guide to rulers on how to gain and to keep power.
Patron Person who provides financial support for the arts.
Humanism Intellectual movement at the heart of the Italian Renaissance that focused on worldly subjects rather than on religious issues.
Humaninities Study of subjects taught in ancient Greece and Rome, such as grammar, rhetoric, poetry, and history.
Perspective Artistic technique used to give drawings and paintings a three-dimensional effect.
Albrecht Durer German Leonardo. Etched designs on metal plate with acid.
Jan van Eyck Flemish. Developed oil paint to produce strong colors and hard surface.
Francois Rabelais French. Satirist. Monk. Greek scholar. Doctor. Author. Ideal Renaissance man.
William Shakespeare English. Playwright. Poet. Wrote "Macbeth"
Miguel de Cervantes Spanish. Novelist. His well-known work:"Don Quioxite."
Johann Gutenberg German, printed a complete edition of Bible with a printing press.
Engraving Art form in which etches a design on a metal plate with acid and then uses the plate to make multiple prints.
Vernacular Everyday language of ordinary people.
Utopian Any ideal society.
Protestant Reformation New calls for reform unleashed force that would shatter Christian unity.
Martian Luther A German monk and professor of theology who triggered the revolt.
Peace of Augsburg signed in 1555, allowed each prince to decide which religion-Catholic or Lutheran-would be followed in his lands.
John Calvin The most important reformer to follow Martin Luther.
Huguenot French Calvinists
John Knox A Calvinist preacher in Scotland that led a religious rebellion.
indulgence lessening of time a soul would have to spend in purgatory.
recant to give up views.
predestination The idea that God had long ago determined who would gain salvation.
Theocracy Government run by church leaders.
Henry VIII 32" waist. talented. attacked Luther in pamphlet. 'Defender of Faith.'
Elizabeth I Queen of England, she slowly enforced a series of reforms.
Council of Trent Reaffirmed traditional Catholic values. That Protestants challenge. Bible is not sole source.
Inquisition A Church court that used secret testimony, torture, and execution to root out heresy.
Jesuit The Society of Jesus
Teresa of Avila born into a wealthy Spanish family, set up her own order of nuns.
Annul cancel
Canonize Recognized as a Saint.
Compromise Acceptable middle ground.
Scapegoat A person forced to take the blame of others' problems.
ghetto Separate part of the city.
Nicolaus Copernicus Polish. Publishes heliocentric idea. says sun is at center.
Johannes Kelper German. Supports Copernicus. calculates orbits of planets around the sun.
Galileo Galilei Italian. New telescope. Spots on sun.
Francis Bacon English. Stresses experimentation.
Rene Descartes English. Emphasized human reasoning.
Isaac Newton Discovered a force he called gravity. Came up with the laws of physics.
Robert Boyle Distinguished individual elements and chemical compounds.
Heliocentric Based on the belief that the sun is the center of the universe
Hypothesis Possible explanation
Scientific Method Painstacking method used to confirm findings and to prove or disprove a hypothesis.
Gravity Force that tends to pull one mass or object to another