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Industrial Revolution

Industrial Revolution a period in history from the late 1700's through the late 1900's when important changes in farming, industry, transportation, machinery,and manufacturing took place.Many new inventions created a more modern world
Peasant someone who lives in the country and is usually a poor farmer
Village a small community
Agriculture having to do with farming, livestock and crops
Wooden Plow a tool made of wood used to turn over soil and prepare the field for planting
Sickle & Scythe hand tools used to harvest grain (wheat, oats, rye)
Poaching hunting or fishing on another person's property without their permission
Malnutrition having poor health as a result of poor diet or not having enough food
Grain Mill a place where seeds of grain are crushed and made into flour for baking and cooking
Cottage Industry a way of working before the Industrial Revolution. Workers worked at home spinning thread and weaving cloth. They could set their own pace and hours allowing to farm chores. They were paid for each finished piece of cloth.
Cotton Gin a machine that separates cotton seeds from cotton fibers much, much faster than by hand.
Cotton Plantation a large farm in the southern USA. Major crop: cotton. Supplied England and northern USA.
Spinning Jenny a machine in a fabric factory that can spin more than 100 threads at once, doing the work of many people
Iron a metal dug from mines and used to make stronger tools during the industrial revolution
Coal a fuel dug from underground mines and burned to power machinery and to soften iron to make tools during the IR. Pollutant.
Steam Engine and invention which uses fuel to boil water, which produced STEAM, which moved a piston inside an engine. Powered: farm machinery, boats, & trains. Pumped water from mines.
James Watt invented a more efficient steam engine
Robert Fulton improved the steam engine and invented a steam boat that could travel up river. 1st one called "Clermont".
Cities a place where many people lived close together. Lg towns grew around factories during the IR.
Factory a place where workers used machines to spin thread and weave cloth on looms. Worked set schedule & long hours. Later more goods made than just cloth.
Child Labor children worked in factories and coal mines up to 12 hours a day for low wages & dangerous jobs that adults refused to do. Treated badly, no time to attend school.
Reformer a person who wants to change conditions he or she thinks are harmful
Charles Dickens English author and social critic. Stories often involved lower economic conditions faced during IR.
Railroads a new means of transportation during the 1800s using the steam engine invented during the IT
Transcontinental Railroad a railroad built across the North American continent during the IR
Eli Whitney Invented the cotton gin
Created by: SG Luther