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Drug Law Review

Federal Drug Laws and Standards

QuestionAnswer
The following law classifies drugs according to potential for abuse & usefullness in medicine from a Class 1 to Class 5? Controlled Substances Act
The following law established for accurately labeling of drug products? Pure Food & Drug Act
The following laws required testing to proof that new drugs are safe? Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act
The following laws required that drugs be prescribed by a doctor and dispensed by a pharmacist? Durham-Humphrey Amendment
The following laws required that drugs must show proof of effectiveness? Kefauver-Harris Ammendment
This law required the regulation of narcotics distribution and categorizes them according to their medical usefullness? Controlled Substances Act
What law establish the production of drugs that affect relatively few people? Orphan Drug Act
Which agency is in charge of enforcing the drug laws? Food and Drug Administion
Which agency regulates vaccines and other biologic products? Public Health Service
Which agency stops misleading advertisements of non-prescription drugs? Federal Trade Commission
Which law shortened the time required for developing and marketing of new drugs? Drug Reguation Reform Act
This law establish restriction on narcotics, NO importing, manufacture and sale? Harrison Narcotic Act
Nuremburg Code Rights of human subjects to be protected in medical research?
What phase of studies of a drug on a small group of healthy volunteers, to determine safe dosages. Phase I Clinical Trials
Studies of the drug on a small group < than a 100 with the disease and the reponses are studed. Phase II Clinical Trials
What studies of the drug on a large group with the disease studies are design to remove bias. Phase III Clinical Trials
Post market study of a drug with volunteer basis, after first three phases are review. Phase IV Clinical Trials
During what phase a drug is approved for selling. Phase III Clinical Trials
A new drug application is submitted for approval during what phase? Phase III Clinical Trials
Determine drug dosage and pharmacokintinetics are done during this phase. Phase I Clinical Trials
During this phase drugs are determine for effectineness and side effects on a small group of people. Phase II Clinical Trials
During this phase a placebo is used to determine ranges for effectiveness, safety and dosage range. Phase III Clinical Trials
Drugs not approved for medical use, that have high abuse protential. Schedule 1 Drug Class
Drugs that are used used medical but have a high potential for abuse. Schedule 2 Drug Class
Drugs that are less potential for abuse than in Classes 1 &2 Schedule 3 Drug Class
Schedule 4 Drug Class Schedule 4 Drug Class
Schedule 5 Drug Class Schedule 5 Drug Class
What name is given to a drug during the investigation phase? Chemical Name
Which organization determines which drugs can be marketed in the United States? Food and Drug Administration
How many generic names can a drug have? Only One
Which agency regulates the manufacture and distribution of substances that have a potential for abuse? Drug Enforcement Administration
The study of drugs Pharmacology
When two formulations of a drug meet the chemical and physical standards established by the regulatory agencies, they are said to be: Chemically equivalent
When two formulations of drugs produce similar concentrations of the drug in the blood and tissues, they are said to be: Biologically equivalent
When two formulations of a drug prove to have an equal therapeutic effect in a clinical trial, they are said to be Therapeutically equivalent
What are the FDA requirements that pertain to the substitution of trade name products with generic? The active ingredients of the generic product must enter the blood stream at the same rate as the trade name product.
When is the best time to schedule an asthmatic patient? P.M.
When is the best time to schedule a diabetic patient? AM
Which agency regulates the trade practices of drug companies and prohibits the false advertising of foods, nonprescription drugs, and cosmetics? Federal Trade Commission
How long is a trade name protected by the Federal Patent Law? 17 years
The generic name of a drug is: Not capitalized
The trade name of a drug is: Capitalized
Before generic drugs are marketed they must be shown to be: Biologically equivalent
Which name is given to a drug when it is determined to be useful and will be commercially marketed? Trade Name
When naming drugs, which name is selected by the U.S. Adopted Name Council? Generic Name
atropine (blocks ACh action on the heart) antagonists
Prevent binding of other molecules to a receptor by their binding to the receptor? antagonists
Term having to do with drug actions on the body: pharmacodynamics
Dramatic decrease in systemic availability of a drug following oral administration is most likely due to: hepatic "first-pass" effect
General term having to do with actions of the body on the drug: pharmacokinetics
Most common mechanism of drug permeation passive diffusion
Most common mechanism of drug carrier-mediated transport ATP transportation
Most common mechanism of drug active-transport endocytosis
Primary site for drug metabolism liver
Most important organ for unchanged drug/drug metabolite elimination: kidney
Number of half-lives required to go from one steady-state to another: 4
The way in which the body affects a drug by the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion: pharmacokinetics
The effects of the drug on the body and the mode of drug action pharmacodynamics
A drug that binds to a cell receptor and causes a response is called an: agonist
When the body sees the drug as an antigen and an immune response is established against the drug drug allergy
Brand name of a medication: trade name
Drug that helps to constrict the blood vessels and relax airway passages; it may be used to counter a severe allergic reaction. ephinephrine
Powder, usually pre-mixed with water, that will absorb some poisons and help prevent them from being absorbed by the body. activated charcoal
Patients who have a medical history of asthma, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis may carry: bronchodilator
The name that the manufacturer uses in marketing a drug is called the _____ name: trade
A circumstance in which a drug should not be used because it may cause harm to the patient or offer no effect in improving the patient's condition or illness is called a (n) contraindication
An action of a drug that is other than the desired action is called? side effect
Medication administered through the mucous membrane sublingual
Medication administered via the respiratory tract inhalation
Most dangerous route for medication administration intraveous
Drug applied directly to a body site topical
Has the longest absorption time of all parenteral routes intradermal
Often used for drugs that are irritating, since there are few nerve endings in this deep tissue intramuscular
The combined effect of two or more drugs acting simultaneously, producing an effect greater than that of each drug alone synergistic effect
The combined effect of two or more drugs acting simultaneously, producing an effect less than that of each drug alone antagonistic effect
An abnormal or peculiar response to a drug that may manifest itself by overresponse, underresponse, or response different from the expected outcome idosyncratic effect
Occurs when the body cannot metabolize one dose of a drug before another dose is administered cumulative effect
Exists when the body becomes accustomed to a particular drug over a period of time drug tolerance
Occurs in an individual who has been previously exposed to the drug and has developed antibodies drug allergy
Disease caused unintentionally by drug therapy iatrogenic disease
The breakdown of a drug into an inactive form metabolism
The movement of a drug throughout the body after it has been absorbed into the bloodstream distribution
The process by which a drug transferred from its site of entry into the body to the bloodstream absorption
The process by which drugs alter cell physiology pharmacodynamics
Copyrighted name selected bu the drug company selling the drug trade name
The name of a drug assigned by the manufacturer who first develops the drug; often derived from the chemical name generic name
A very percise description of the drug's chemical composition, identifying the drug's atomic and molecular structure chemical name
An order conveying the medication plans to others prescription
The study that deals with chemicals affecting the body's functioning pharmacology
Any substance that modifies body functions when taken into the living organism drug
This system is reponsible for the day to day function of the body Parasympatheic Nervous System
This system prodominates the body when under stress. Sysmpatheic Nervous System
The principle area of intergration of the Autonomic Nervous system is? Hypothalamas
All preganglionic neurons both in the PNS and CNS release the nurohumoral subtance: Acetylcholine
All postganglionic neurons in the PNS release: Acetylcholine
The Parasympatheic NS system is sometimes called this: Cholinergic system
Most postganglionic fibers in the Sysmpathenic Nerous system release: Norepinephrine
The Sysmpathenic NS system is sometimes called this: Adrenergic system
The adrenal medulla primarily releases 80% of this: Epinephrine
The adrenal medulla primarily releases 20% of this: Norepinephrine
Intensive drug therapy used to sustain life. Acute Therapy
Maintains current functions, does not prevent progression. Maintenance Therapy
Need to maintain normal function. Supplemental Therapy
Maintains body function integrity. Supportive Therapy
Preventive care. Prophylactic Therapy
End of life care, comfort measures. Palliative Therapy
given upon approval by the FDA , sometimes shortened chemical name generic name
name given by mfg because of the chemical atributes chemical name
given by the mfg, something catchy having to do with what it does brand, trade,
The undesirable reactions of a drug are called: Adverse effects
The clinically desirable actions of a drug are called: Therapeutic effects
What is the main purpose of phase 2 of human testing of drugs? Effectiveness
Using the FDA categories for classifying teratogenic drugs, which one of the following would be considered the least likely to cause birth defects? A
Using the FDA categories for classifying teratogenic drugs, which one of the following would be considered the most likely to cause birth defects? X
Which phase of human testing of a drug involves a large number of patients and requires the demonstration of the safety and efficacy of the drug. Phase 3
Which phase of human testing of a drug involves the postmarketing surveillance of a drug? Phase 4
The phase of human testing that involves the use of a limited number of individuals who are given small then increasing doses of the drug to determine the drugs safety. Phase I
Which phase of human testing of a drug involves larger groups of people and the reporting of any adverse reactions to the FDA? Phase 2
Which category (schedule) includes Morphine? Schedule II
Which category of drugs is listed as high abuse with no refills? Schedule II
Which category (schedule) includes Codeine and other sedatives? Schedule III
Which category (schedule) includes Benzodiazepines? Schedule IV
Which category of drugs has the highest abuse potential? Schedule I
Which category of drugs has a moderate abuse potential? Schedule III
Which category of drugs is the least abusive? Schedule
During "Flight or Fight" response Sympathenic NS will cause vasodilation: skeletal muscle
During "Flight or Fight" response Sympathenic NS will cause vasocntriction: skin and viscera
Activation of Alpha-1 receptors in the vascalture produces: constriction
Activation of Beta-2 receptors in the vascalture produces: dilatation
The measure of the rate at which drugs are removed from the body (time to elimiante 50% of the drug) half-life
The process by which a drug is converted by the liver to inactive compounds through a series of chemical reactions biotransformation
The study of drugs and their action on living organisms pharmacology
drugs that the federal government has designated to be potentially harmful unless thier use is supervised by a licensed health care provider prescription drugs
The most carefully monitored drugs that have a high potential for abuse and may cause dependence controlled substances
The compulsion to use a substance to obtain a pleasurable experience psychological dependency
The activities within the body after a drug is administered pharmacokinetics
These speicalized macromolecule that attatches or binds to the drug molecule receptor
These drugs that bind with a receptor to produce a therapeutic response agonists
These drugs join with a receptor to prevent the action of an agonist antagonists
This is undesirable drug effects adverse reactions
The hypersensitivity to a drug where the immune system views the drug as a foreign substance allergic reaction
This extremely serious allergic reaction that occurs shortly after drug administration anaphylactic shock
This allergic drug reaction causing collection of fluid in subq tissues angioedema
Any abnormal or unsusal reaction to a drug ex. sleeping pill makes you wide awake idiosyncrasy
A decreased response to a drug requiring an increase in dosage to achieve the desired effect drug tolerance
When the body is unable to metabolize and excrete one normal dose of drug before the next is given cumulative drug effect
genetically determined abnormal response to a normal dose of a drug pharmacogentic disorder
The combined effect of two drugs is equal to the sum of each drug given alone ex: alcohol + heparin=increased bleeding additive drug
When drugs interact with each other and produce effect that is greater than the sum of thier actions synergism
When taking numerous drugs that can potnetially react with one another polypharmacy
gives the exact makeup of the drug and placing of the atoms or molecular structure (it is not capitalized) chemical name
The name given to a drug before it becomes official (not capitalized) generic name
The name registered by the manufacturer and is followed by the trademark symbol (first letter is capitalized) trade name
Any any substance that causes abnormal developement of the fetus teratogen
The process by which a drug is made available for use in the body absorption
The human systemic circulation distributes drugs to various body tissues or target sites distribution
The elimination of drugs from the body usually through the kidney but also through sweat, breast milk, breath, feces excretion
A desired or therapeutic effect primary effect
all other effects whether desirable or undesirable secondary effects
The symp. nervous system stimulant, parasymp. nervous system depressant. behaves similarly to antihistamines while stim. the CNS adrenergics
block secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine; antagonize the adrenergics; symp. depressant antiadrenergics
antagonize acetylcholine; depress parasymp. NS; similar to symp. NS stimulants anticholinergics
mimic or stimulate acetylcholine; stim. parasymp. NS cholinergics
dilate the pupil mydriatics
constrict the pupil miotics
CNS depressant, interfere with nerve impulse conduction of pain perception analgesics
some produce unconsciousness and loss of sensation by blocking the conduction of impulse to the brain from nerves to which they are injected, or applied, producing no loss in consciousness anesthetics
cause sleep to occur - higher dosage than sedatives hypnotics
cause quieting and drowsiness - lower dosage than hypnotics sedatives
effect of one drug added to another - same mechanism additive effect
drugs taken together (similar effect) produce effect that is > effects of each added together - different mechanism synergistic effect (synergism)
the study of drugs and the way they interact with living systems Pharmacology
the study of drugs in humans. Clinical pharmacology
any chemical that can effect living processes drug
the medical use of drugs. Therapeutics
This is the most important quality that a drug can have.refers to the drug's ability to do what it is supposed to do. Effectiveness
Although no drug can be totally safe, proper usage can lessen the risks of adverse ffects Safety
The way the body deals with a drug. Pharmacokinetics is concerned with the processes of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion Pharmacokinetics
What a drug does to the body. Pharmacodynamics
Uses normal volunteers to evaluate drug metabolism and determine effects of drug on humans. Phase 1
Uses patients to determine a drugs therapeutic effects, dosage range and safety Phases 2 and 3
Drug is released for general use, following a conditional approval granted by the FDA. Phase 4
The extremely long, tongue-tying name of the precise chemical compound. Chemical Name
Often a shortened form of the chemical name. Generic Name
The proprietary or brand name Trade Name
This name is chosen by the drug company so it is often short, catchy and easy to remember Trade Name:
A drug may have many different trade names, but will have only one generic name, making the generic name more conducive to communication. Trade Name:
Requires that all new drugs be tested for safety The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (1938)
mandates FDA approval of any new drug before marketing. The Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act (1938):
This amendment to the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act stipulates that a drug must prove useful before marketing. Started clinical trials. Kefauver-Harris Amendment (1962):
This Act concerned itself with drug abuse divided drugs into categories called schedules The Controlled Substances Act (1970):
Drugs that have no accepted use in medicine, and have high abuse potential ( e.g. marijuana, LSD) Schedule I
has the highest level of abuse potential for these medically accepted drugs Schedule II
When new drugs are developed, they are first tested in animals preclinical testing
is done in human beings after FDA approval is given following the preclinical tests. Clinical testing
The movement of a drug from its site of administration into the blood. Absorption
The movement of drugs throughout the body. Distribution
The enzymatic alteration of drug structure Metabolism:
The removal of drugs from the body. Excretion
the largest effects that a drug can produce Maximal Efficacy
The strength of the attraction between a drug and its receptor. Affinity
A drug that mimics the body's own regulatory processes Agonists
produce their effects by preventing receptors activation by endogenous regulatory molecules and drugs Antagonists
Block activation of receptors by agonists. Antagonists:
Which category (schedule) includes Morphine? Schedule II
Which category of drugs is listed as high abuse with no refills? Schedule II
Which category (schedule) includes Codeine and other sedatives? Schedule IV
Which category (schedule) includes Benzodiazepines? Schedule IV
Which category of drugs has the highest abuse potential? Schedule I
Which category of drugs has a moderate abuse potential? Schedule III
Which category of drugs is the least abusive? Schedule V
The phase of human testing that involves the use of a limited number of individuals who are given small then increasing doses of the drug to determine the drugs safety Phase I
Which phase of human testing of a drug involves larger groups of people and the reporting of any adverse reactions to the FDA? Phase 2
Which phase of human testing of a drug involves a large number of patients and requires the demonstration of the safety and efficacy of the drug. Phase 3
Which phase of human testing of a drug involves the postmarketing surveillance of a drug? Phase 4
drug that binds to its receptor and prevents other drugs or substances from producing an effect antagonists
When drugs interact with each other and produce effect that is greater than the sum of thier actions synergism
drug for which dispensing requires a written or phone order that can only be issued by or under the direction of a licensed physician prescription drug
The study of drugs pharmacology
Study of the processes of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, & excretion General term having to do with actions of the body on the drug: pharmacokinetics
The study of the action of drugs on living tissue pharmacodynamics
The name gives the exact makeup of the drug and placing of the atoms or molecular structure (it is not capitalized chemical name
The name given to a drug before it becomes official (not capitalized) generic name
The name listed in the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary; may be the same as generic name official name
The name registered by the manufacturer and is followed by the trademark symbol (first letter is capitalized) trade name
A muscle cell or gland cell that performs the body's responses to stimuli; responds to signals from the brain. Effector cell
The loss of effectiveness of the drug because the drug is going to pass through the liver and be broken down. First pass effect
The process of the drug transferring from the site of entry into the blood stream. Drug absorption
The movement of the drug by the circulatory system to the site of action. Drug distribution
The ability for drugs to locate a receptor Affinity
Reactive cellular site on a molecule or cell; what the drug interacts with. Receptor
Response from the drug action. Drug effect
Interaction at the cellular level Drug action
2 like drugs are combined and the result is the sum of the drugs effects. 1 + 1 = 2. Synergistic effects
The combined response of 2 drugs is less than 1 drug given alone. 1 + 1 = 0. antagonist Effects
2 drugs given together, one drug increases the effect of the other drug. potentiation effect
Unexpected response; mimics a pathological disease iatrogenic reaction
Drug combines with receptor but fails to produce an effect itself. It prevents an agonist from illiciting a response (prevents it from happening). Has affinity but not intrinsic activity. antagonist
Has affinity (to locate receptor) and has intrinsic activity (to create changes in a cell). Creates 3 bonds with receptors to bind with receptor and changes occur within cell. agonist
They attach to a receptor and stimulate the cell to act. agonist
When are most drugs elilminated from the body? 4 -5 half-lifes
Causes cellular changes. Initiates biologic activity or efficacy. intrinsic activity
The effects of the medications combined is greater than the effect of the medication when given seperately. synergistic effect
This is a expected or predictable response a medication causes therapeutic effect
This is severe responses to medications adverse effect
unintended, secondary effects a medication predictably will cause adverse effect
The excessive amounts of meds within the body may have lethal effects toxic effect
This is unpredictable response allergic reaction
sudden constriction of bronchiolar muscles, edema of pharynx, wheezing, SOB anaphylactic shock
When the drug is given administration
When the drug is taken up by the body absorption
When the drug spreads through the body distribution
When the drug is removed from the body elimination
Drugs that block stress related activity sympatholytic
lowest risk – studies have not shown a risk to women or fetus (Synthroid) Pregnancy Categories A
animal studies have not shown risk to fetus or in women if they have they have not been confirmed (Amoxil, Insulin, Prozac) Pregnancy Categories B
animal studies show risk to fetus, controlled studies have not been done in women ( Zovirax, Lasix) Pregnancy Categories C
may cause harm to fetus, but may benefit the mother in life-threatening situation, another safe treatment is not available (tetracycline, Elavil) Pregnancy Categories D
significant risk to fetus and the women Pregnancy Categories X
the study of drugs and their interactions with living systems. pharmacology
the study of adverse effects of drugs as they interact with living systems toxicology
is associated with the preparation and dispensing of drugs pharmacy
Drugs that effect the body on the drug (absorption, distribution and elimation of drug) pharmacokinetics
Most common mechanism of drug permeation passive diffusion
Most common mechanism of drug carrier-mediated transport ATP transportation
Most common mechanism of drug active-transport endocytosis
The transport of materials out of the cell using a vesicle that first engulfs the material: exocytosis
Primary site for drug metabolism liver
Most important organ for unchanged drug/drug metabolite elimination: kidney
Any substance that modifies body functions when taken into the living organism drug
Copyrighted name selected bu the drug company selling the drug trade name
The name of a drug assigned by the manufacturer who first develops the drug; often derived from the chemical name generic name
A very percise description of the drug's chemical composition, identifying the drug's atomic and molecular structure chemical name
The name listed in the United States Pharmacopeia-National Formulary; may be the same as generic name official name
The symp. nervous system stimulant, parasymp. nervous system depressant. behaves similarly to antihistamines while stim. the CNS adrenergics
antagonize acetylcholine; depress parasymp. NS; similar to symp. NS stimulants anticholinergics
mimic or stimulate acetylcholine; stim. parasymp. NS cholinergics
rugs that dilate the pupil mydriatics
constrict the pupil miotics
Drugs which bind to and activate receptors agonists
Drugs which bind to but do not activate receptors. In so doing these drugs block receptors from the effects of agonists antagonists:
the tendency of a drug to bind to its receptor affinity
the ability of the drug (once bound) to activate the receptor and produce a response efficacy
the potency of an agonist is the concentration of a drug that produces a pharmacological response and is determined both by affinity and efficacy. potency
Passage of drugs from blood into brain tissue and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) constitutes a special aspect of membranal, transfer. Blood-Brain Barrier
Binding of drugs to plasma proteins (PP), usually ALBUMIN fraction, leads to high concentrations of drug in the plasma. Protein Binding
consists of network of neuronal connections between the brain and all parts of the body. nervous system
which consists of the brain and the spinal cord central nervous system
which connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body. peripheral nervous system
Administration of adrenergic agonist drugs induce responses of 'fight or flight' sympathomimetics
These types of drugs are refered to as sympathomimetics as they mimic sympathetic stimulation. sympathomimetics
Administration of adrenergic antagonist drugs prevent the responses of 'fight or flight'. sympatholytics
These types of drugs are refered to as sympatholytics as they block or inhibit sympathetic stimulation. sympatholytics
the way the drug enters the body and reaches the bloodstream absorption
where the drug goes in the body after it has been absorbed) distribution
how it is changed by the body - e.g. in the liver) metabolism
the route by which it, or its metabolites, leave the body - e.g. in the urine via the kidney). elimination
Block stress related activity sympatholytics
Dilate peripheral blood vessels vasodilators
written lower case generic
capitalized trade name
overwhelming feeling that drives someone to use a drug repeatedly addiction:
physiological or psychological need for a substance dependency:
digestive tract Enteral
major route; Given into the cardiovascular circulation parenteral
by application onto the skin or associated membranes topical
drug’s strength at a certain concentration or dose  potency
ability of a drug to produce a more intense response as the concentration is increased efficacy
What type of drugs would you avoid if a patient has asthma? cholinergic agents
Which division of the ANS is designed to cope with sudden emergencies such as fight or flight? SANS
Which division of the ANS is concerned with the conservation of body processes? PANS
Which agent would cause miosis? cholinergic
Which agent would cause mydrosis? adrenergic
Which agent would cause a decrease in the heart rate? cholinergic
Which agents can cause an increase in salivation, lacrimation, urination, and defecation (SLUD)? cholinergic
Agents that mimic the effects of the SANS are called: Sympathomimetics; Adrenergic
What is the neurotransmitter substance released at the synapse between the preganglionic and postganglionic nerve fiber in the PANS? acetylcholine
What is the neurotransmitter substance released at the synapse between the preganglionic nerve fiber and the postganglionic nerve fiber in the SANS? acetylcholine
Agents that block the effects of the parasympathetic nervous system. Anticholinergic agents; Parasympatholytic agents
Which agents can be used in the treatment of asthma? adrenergic agents
Which agents are added to local anesthetic solutions to prolong their action? adrenergic agents
What substances are released at the synaptic cleft in order to facilitate nerve-to-nerve or nerve-to-effector tissue communication neurotransmitters
Which type of drug would you avoid if a patient has a peptic ulcer? cholinergic
Which agent would increase saliva? cholinergic
Which neurotransmitter substance is released between the postganglionic fiber and the effector tissue in the PANS? acetylcholine
What is the neurotransmitter substance released between the postganglionic fiber and the effector tissue of the SANS? norepinephrine
Nerves that release acetylcholine are called: cholinergic
True or False:The route of administration of a drug affects both the onset and duration of response. True
A drug that has affinity for a receptor and when it combines with that receptor it produces an effect agonist
The passage of drugs across the placenta involves simple diffusion
True or False:There are no disadvantages to the administration of drugs via the oral route. False (stomach and intestinal irritation may result and certain drugs are inactivated by the acidity or enzymes in the GI tract.)
If a drug is a weak acid and the pH of the site rises, what will occur? Drug CANNOT penetrate the tissues easil
Which route of administration is useful for emergencies, unconsciousness, lack of cooperation, or nausea? parenteral
Lipid soluble substances move across the lipoprotein membrane by way of: Simple diffusion
True or False:The efficacy of a drug is not related to its potency. True
What route is used to administer the tuberculosis skin test? Intradermal Route
What type of administration involves the injection of solutions into the spinal subarachnoid space? Intrathecal Route
What type of drugs can be administered by inhalation? Gaseous
If a drug is a weak acid, what happens if the pH of the site falls? Drug CAN penetrate the tissues easily
Which type of administration produces the slowest onset of action? Oral
True or False:Drugs are bound irreversibly to plasma proteins. False
The most common problems with transdermal patches includes all except: Hematoma
Which route is commonly used for the administration of insulin? subcutaneous route
Refers to the time it takes for the drug to begin to have its effect. Onset
The length of a drug's effect. duration
Which distribution site elicits the therapeutic response desired? Specific site
Give an example of a physiologic effect caused by drugs. lowering blood pressure
If a drug is a weak base, what happens if the pH of the site rises? Drug CAN penetrate the tissues easily
Refers to the route when drugs are administered by bypassing the gastrointestinal tract and includes injections, inhalation, and topical administration? parenteral
The disadvantages of the parenteral route include all except: Self medication is difficult, More painful
The maximum intensity of effect or response that can be obtained when a sufficient amount of a drug is administered Efficacy
True or False;The blood levels obtained after oral administration are less predictable than those obtained parenterally. True
An advantage of the oral route is the large absorbing area present in the stomach. The statement is partially true (absorption occurs in the small intestine)
Which route of administration results in fast absorption, thereby producing rapid onset and a more predictable response? Injection
The time necessary for the body to eliminate half of the drug present in the circulation at any given time. half-life
The body's way of changing a drug so that it can be excreted by the kidneys metabolism
The effect that occurs when drugs are given orally and are passed through the hepatic portal circulation, which inactivates some drugs. first-pass effect
What are the two routes of administration drugs called? enteral, parenteral
A process by which a substance is transported against a concentration gradient or electrochemical gradient. active transport
The need for an increasingly larger dose of a drug to obtain the same effects as the original dose. drug tolerance
A drug that binds to a receptor site that is different from the binding site for the agonist. noncompetitive antagonist
The passage of drugs into various body fluid compartments such as plasma, interstitial fluids, and intracellular fluids distribution
Refers to the route used when drugs are placed directly into the gastrointestinal tract by oral or rectal administration enteral
The study of how a drug enters the body, circulates within the body, and leaves the body and what factors influence the movements. pharmacokinetics
A drug that interacts with the same receptor site as the agonist and competes with the agonist for action. competitive antagonist
What type of administration produces the most rapid drug response, with an almost immediate onset of action? Intravenous Route
If the half life of a drug is 1 hour, how long would it take for the drug to be gone from the body? 5 hours
A chemical substance used for the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of disease or for the prevention of pregnancy. drugs
The process by which drug molecules are transferred from the site of administration in the body to the circulating fluids. absorption
The effect produced at a certain dose of the drug that cannot be increased with a higher dose of the drug is the: maximum effect
atropine (blocks ACh action on the heart) antagonists
An action of a drug that is other than the desired action is called? side effect
Drug delivery method LEAST suitable for long term (days to weeks) slow release time release capsule
Primary site for drug metabolism liver
Most important organ for unchanged drug/drug metabolite elimination: kidney
Number of half-lives required to go from one steady-state to another: 4
Direct cardiac effects decrease heart rate; decrease contractility parasympathetic
Cholinergic activity on stomach acid secretion increase
The main route of administration of a drug to produce a local effect is: topical
The main routes of administration of a drug to provide a systemic effect are Oral, Parenteral
Parenteral administration of a drug refers to the giving of a preparation: Intradermally,Intramuscularly, Intravenously
If gut motility is increased then drug absorption is decreased
The rate of drug absorption is greatest in the: small intestine
Most drugs and metabolites are excreted by: kidneys
When the body sees the drug as an antigen and an immune response is established against the drug drug allergy
Drug that helps to constrict the blood vessels and relax airway passages; it may be used to counter a severe allergic reaction. ephinephrine
Powder, usually pre-mixed with water, that will absorb some poisons and help prevent them from being absorbed by the body. activated charcoal
The name that the manufacturer uses in marketing a drug is called the _____ name: trade
A circumstance in which a drug should not be used because it may cause harm to the patient or offer no effect in improving the patient's condition or illness is called a (n) contraindication
Drugs prescribed to relax the smooth muscles of the bronchial tubes are called bronchodilators
Medication administered through the mucous membrane sublingual administration
Most dangerous route for medication administration intraveous
Drug applied directly to a body site topical application
Has the longest absorption time of all parenteral routes intradermal
Often used for drugs that are irritating, since there are few nerve endings in this deep tissue ntramuscular
lies between the epidermis and the muscle subcutaneous tissue
subcutaneous tissue anaphylactic reaction
Disease caused unintentionally by drug therapy iatrogenic disease
An abnormal or peculiar response to a drug that may manifest itself by overresponse, underresponse, or response different from the expected outcome idosyncratic effect
Occurs when the body cannot metabolize one dose of a drug before another dose is administered cumulative effect
The combined effect of two or more drugs acting simultaneously, producing an effect greater than that of each drug alone synergistic effect
The combined effect of two or more drugs acting simultaneously, producing an effect less than that of each drug alone antagonistic effect
This system is reponsible for the day to day function of the body. Parasympatheic Nervous System
This system prodominates the body when under stress. Sysmpatheic Nervous System.
The principle area of intergration of the Autonomic Nervous system is? Hypothalamas
All preganglionic neurons both in the PNS and CNS release the nurohumoral subtance acetylcholine
All postganglionic neurons in the PNS release: acetylcholine
The Parasympatheic NS system is sometimes called this: cholinergic system
Most postganglionic fibers in the Sysmpathenic Nerous system release: norepinephrine
The Sysmpathenic NS system is sometimes called this: adrenergic system
The adrenal medulla primarily releases 80% of this: epinephrine
The adrenal medulla primarily releases 20% of this: norepinephrine
During "Flight or Fight" response Sympathenic NS will cause vasodilation of: skeletal muscle
During "Flight or Fight" response Sympathenic NS will cause vasocntriction: skin and viscera
Activation of Alpha-1 receptors in the vascalture produces: constriction
Activation of Beta-2 receptors in the vascalture produces: dilatation
The most carefully monitored drugs that have a high potential for abuse and may cause dependence controlled substances
The hypersensitivity to a drug where the immune system views the drug as a foreign substance allergic reaction
When taking numerous drugs that can potnetially react with one another polypharmacy
This is undesirable drug effects adverse reactions
Any any substance that causes abnormal developement of the fetus teratogen
cause sleep to occur - higher dosage than sedatives hypnotics
cause sleep to occur - higher dosage than sedatives sedatives
Maintains current functions, does not prevent progression. Maintenance Therapy
Intensive drug therapy used to sustain life Acute Therapy
Need to maintain normal function. Supplemental Therapy
Maintains body function integrity. Supportive Therapy
Preventive care. Prophylactic Therapy
End of life care, comfort measures. Palliative Therapy
given upon approval by the FDA , sometimes shortened chemical name generic name
name given by mfg because of the chemical atributes chemical name
given by the mfg, something catchy having to do with what it does brand, trade,
What book only lists FDA approved drugs and is the most used reference in a doctor’s office? PDF
The two categories of neuropharmacologic agents are: PNS drugs, CNS drugs
Central nervous system controls: Brain and spinal cord
The study of drugs that alter processes controlled by the nervous system: Neuropharmacology
Peripheral nervous system controls: Somatic motor, Autonomic systems
Autonomic system is divied into: Parasympathetic, Sympathetic
Principal neurotransmitters of PNS: acetylcholine
Principal neurotransmitters of PNS : norepinephrine
Principal neurotransmitters of PNS: epinephrine
Principal neurotransmitters of PNS: dopamine
Receptors of the Peripheral Nervous System: cholinergic
Receptor mediated by acetylcholine: cholinergic receptor
Receptor mediated by norepinephrine and epinephrine: adrenergic receptor
Receptors of the Peripheral Nervous System: adrenergic
Subtypes of Cholinergic Nicotinic
Subtypes of Cholinergic Nicotinic m
Subtypes of Cholinergic Muscarinic
Subtypes of Adrenergic Receptor: Alpha1 and alpha2
Subtypes of Adrenergic Receptor: Beta1 and beta2
Subtypes of Adrenergic Receptor: Dopamine
Function of cholinergic receptor subtype that promotes ganglia transmission: Nicotinic n (neuronal)
Function of cholinergic receptor subtype that promotes release of epinephrine: Nicotinic n (neuronal
Function of cholinergic receptor subtype that promotes contraction of skeletal muscle: Nicotinic m (muscle)
Function of cholinergic receptor subtype that promotes activates parasympathetic nervous system: Muscarinic
Regulation of cardiovascular system is a functions of the : Sympathetic Nervous System
Regulation of body temperature is a functions of the: Sympathetic Nervous System
Implementation of “fight or flight” reaction is a functions of the : Sympathetic Nervous System
Vasoconstriction is a function of adrenergic receptor subtypes: Alpha1
Ejaculation is a function of adrenergic receptor subtypes: Alpha1
Contraction of bladder neck and prostate is a function of adrenergic receptor subtypes: Alpha1
located in presynaptic junction: Alpha2
Adrenergic receptor subtype with minimal clinical significance: Alpha2
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that controls the heart: Beta1
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that increase heart rate: Beta1
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that increase force of contraction: Beta1
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that increase n velocity of conduction in AV node: Beta1
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that controls the kidney: Beta1
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that promotes renin release: Beta 1
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that controls the lungs: Beta 2
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that causes bronchial dilation Beta 2
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that causes relaxation of uterine muscle Beta 2
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that promotes vasodilation Beta 2
Function of adrenergic receptor subtype that n Dilates renal blood vessels: Dopamine
The regulatory functions of PNS affect Heart rate
The regulatory functions of PNS affect Gastric secretions
The regulatory functions of PNS affect Bladder and bowel
The regulatory functions of PNS affect Vision
The regulatory functions of PNS affect Bronchial smooth muscle
Adrenergic agonists are also know as: Sympathomimetics
Alpha 1 & 2 receptors controls: Blood vessels & Pupils
Beta 1 recpetors controls: Heart
Beta 2 receptors controls: Lungs
Major neurotransmitter released at end organ effectors of the thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system: norepinephrine
Neurotransmitter of preganglionic fibers acetylcholine
"Fight or flight" activation of the ANS: blood flow shifted from cutaneous beds to skeletal muscle
Dopamine beta hydroxylase catalyzes: dopamine to norepinephrine
Most potent at beta adrenergic receptors isoproterenol (Isuprel)
Powerful agonist at both alpha and beta adrenergic receptors epinephrine
Predominant autonomic tone: salivary glands: parasympathetic
Positive inotropic drug that at low doses specifically promotes an increase in renal blood flow: dopamine (Intropin)
Preganglionic fibers terminating on adrenal medullary chromaffin cells release: acetylcholine
Primary receptor type at autonomic ganglia: cholinergic: nicotinic
Enzyme responsible for acetylcholine synthesis: choline acetyltransferase
Cholinergic receptor type that mediates the decrease in heart rate: muscarinic
Drugs activating this receptor are used in treating asthma: beta2 adrenergic
Epinephrine effects on the heart: coronary vasodilation
Receptor activation mainly responsible for positive inotropism: beta1
Epinephrine effects by the increased rate of the: heart
Epinephrine effects on respiration: stimulation
Activates alpha receptors: phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine
Orthostatic (postural) hypotension: alpha receptor blocker
Norepinephrine pressor response blocked by: prazosin (Minipress)
albuterol (Ventolin,Proventil),ipratropium (Atrovent) Bronchodilation
Positive chronotropic effects of epinephrine: beta1 receptor activation
Most likely to increase myocardial afterload: phenylephrine (Neo-Synephrine)
Decreases blood pressure: propranolol (Inderal
Prevents blood pressure reduction seen with isoproterenol (Isuprel): propranolol (Inderal)
Physiological effects associated with isoproterenol (Isuprel): increased blood glucose
Immediate biosynthetic precursor of epinephrine norepinephrine
Isoproterenol (Isuprel): cardiopulmonary effects: increases peripheral resistance
cardiopulmonary effects of Isoproterenol (Isuprel): positive chronotropism
Albuterol (Ventolin,Proventil): bronchodilation
sympathomimetic; at low doses: increases renal blood flow: dopamine
beta-1 selective receptor blocker: metoprolol (Lopressor)
Effective in reversing respiratory and cardiovascular effects of anaphylactic shock: eprinephrine
Major neurotransmitter at sympathetic nerve endings: norepinephrine, noradrenaline
The action of sympathomimetic drugs on the liver causes an increase in blood glucose levels by a process called: glycogenolysis
Direct sympathetic effects on the heart are mediated by this receptor type: beta repeptor
The dominant autonomic tone in the heart is: parasympathetic, cholinergic, acetylcholine
Major neurotransmitter at autonomic ganglia: nicotinic, acetylcholine
This drug increases heart rate, contributing to increase blood pressure: Epinephrine
alpha-1 adrenergic receptor-mediated affecting precapillary resistance vessels of the skin, kidney, and mucosa Vasoconstrictive effects of epinephrine
Rapid administration of epinephrine, with resulting significant systolic pressure elevation will cause this effect on heart rate: decrease in heart rate
A decrease in diastolic pressures associated with epinephrine administration would most likely occur in which dosage? relatively low doses
Prominent cardiac beta-adrenergic receptor type: beta-1
Significant respiratory tract effects of epinephrine: beta-2 receptor-mediated bronchodilation
Epinephrine effects on AV nodall conduction: increased conduction velocity
Major adrenergic effects on skin/mucosa arteriole vascular beds: constriction
beta-2 adrenergic receptor mediated effects on skeletal muscle arteriole vasculature: dilation
Alpha-adrenergic effects on pulmonary arterioles: constriction
Beta-adrenergic effects on pulmonary arterioles: dilation
Alpha-adrenergic effects on renal arterioles: constriction
beta-2 adrenergic receptor effects on systemic veins: dilation
Major alpha-adrenergic receptor effect on renin secretion: decrease
Decreases bronchial gland secretion: alpha-1 adrenergic
Immediate synthetic precursor of norepinephrine: dopamine
CNS neurotransmitter associated with the basal ganglia and motor control: dopamine, acetylcholine
Low doses, this precursor of norepinephrine causes renovascular dilation: dopamine (Intropin)
Significant therapeutic use for dopamine: treatment of cardiogenic/hypovolemic shock
Has limited action at alpha-adrenergic receptors: isoproterenol (Isuprel)
Cardiovascular characteristics of patients who might benefit from IV dopamine (Intropin) administration: high urinary output
Simultaneous increases in myocardial contractility, glomerular filtration rate, sodium excretion, urine output, and renal blood flow are associated most likely with: dopamine (Intropin)
positive inotropic effect is mediated through beta-adrenergic receptor activation dobutamine (Dobutrex):
Examples of beta-2 selective adrenergic agonists: albuterol (Ventolin,Proventil)
Primary use for alpha-2-selective adrenergic agonists: to reduce blood pressure
Created by: Nerd on 2005-02-15



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