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EKG &Cardiac Testing

chapter 1 Anatomy & Phsoilogy of the heart

inner layer of the heart is called endocardium
middle layer of the heart is called myocardium
outermost layer of the heart is called epicardium
what protects the heart pericardium
what is the fluid between the pericardium and epicardium called pericardial fluid
the bottom of the heart is called apex
the heart is located in the mediastinum
the heart is the size of a fist
feeds the heart wall Coronary Arteries
takes away the waste products Coronary veins
takes waste back to heart (right atria) Coronary sinus
how many chambers are there in the heart 4
the 2 upper chambers of the heart are called atria
the bottom 2 chambers of the heart are called right and left ventricle
what separates the heart down the middle called septum
Co2 blood goes to the heart via the superior and inferior vena cava
the superior and inferior vena cava bring Co2 blood into what part of the heart right atrium
after the Co2 blood enters the right atrium it passes through the tricuspid valve
after the Co2 blood passes the tricuspid valve it goes where? the Right ventricle
when the Co2 blood leaves the right ventricle it leaves through the Pulmonary semi-lunar valve
the PSLV brings the blood to the pulmonary arties
pulmonary arties go to the lungs
how many pulmonary arties are there 2
Oxygenated blood comes from the lungs to the heart via the pulmonary veins
how many pulmonary veins are there 4
O2 blood comes through the pulmonary vein into what part of the heart Left Atrium
after 02 blood enters the Left Atrium it passes through the bicuspid valve
bicuspid AKA mitral
after the O2 blood passes through the bicuspid valve it goes where? Left Ventricle
The O2 blood leaves the Left ventricle it leaves through the Aortic semi-lunar valve
the ASLV brings the blood to the Aorta
The Aorta bring the Oxygenated blood to the Rest Of the Body (ROB)
Contraction phase = Systole
Relaxation phase = Diastole
Systole is the ______ pressure Greatest
Diastole is the _______ pressure lowest
the amount of blood pumped by one ventricle in one minute Cardiac output
how many liters of blood in an adult pump through the heart in one minute 5-6 liters
the heart beats how many times per minute 60-100
the circulation of deoxygenated and oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart and to the ROB is called Cardiopulmonary circulation
The cardiopulmonary Circulation is the ______ process of the heart Mechanical
The Cardiac conduction system is the ______ process of the heart electrical
Name all 8 steps of the Cardiac Conduction System 1.SA node 2.Artial Depolarization 3.AV node 4.Bundle Of His 5.R & L Bundle Branches 6.Purkinje Fibers 7.Venricle Depolarization 8.Repolarization of the ventricles
group of specialized cells located in the upper right atrium SA node
SA node stands for Sino-Atrial
Sinus means normal
the SA node AKA the hearts natural pacemaker
spark travel across atria and causes contraction of Atria Atrial depolarization
group of specialized cells that hold the impulse until the atria empties AV node
AV aka the GATEKEEPER of the heart
AV stands for Artio-ventricular
The AV is located @ the junction of the Right Atrium and Right Ventricle
The Bundle Of His, right & left bundle braches, and Purkinje Fibers are all need to make Ventricle Depolarization
Ventricle Depolarization is ventricle contraction
Repolarization of the ventricles means relax and refill
the record of the electrical activity of the heart Electrocardiogram
What are the 4 unique characteristics of myocardial cells 1. Automaticity 2. Excitability 3. Conductivity 4. Contractility
ALL myocardial cells have the ability to INITATE an impulse with out help from any system Automaticity
ALL myocardial cells have the ability to RESPOND to the impulse Excitability
ALL myocardial cells have the ability to RELAY the impulse to another cell Conductivity
All myocardial cells have he ability to respond with a PUMP ACTION Contractility
Inherent (Intrinsic) rates = preset firing range
SA node fires at 60-100bpm
AV node fires at 40-60bpm
the ventricular myocardial cells fire at 20-40bpm
if SA node is not firing but still fires outside it is called ectopic focus
A lower site takes over when SA node fails Escape (good)
A site speeds up and takes over pacing of the heart irritability (bad)
The heart has 2 type of cells they are electrical and mechanical
it initiates and conducts impulses electrical
contraction in response to stimulation Mechanical
Electrical proceeds mechanical activity. True or false? true
the sequence of the events that takes place during 1 complete heart beat cardiac cycle
what are the 3 Electrical Terms of the cardiac cycle Polarization, Depolarization, Repolarization
electrical charges are balanced "state of rest" polarization
discharge of energy that accompanies the transfer of electrical charges across the cell depolarization
is the return of electrical charges to their original state of readiness repolarization
there is a refractory period where the myocardial cells can not be stimulated; Relaxation phase
There are 2 parts of the Relaxation phase, what are they absolute and relative refractory
cells can NOT be stimulated at all absolute refractory
cells can be stimulated, BUT w/o the desired effect relative refractory
slows down the body process Parasympathetic nerves
Created by: bpstears