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22.4 Psychiatry

Diseases and Conditions of the Psychiatry

affect external expression of emotion. or emotional response.
amnesia loss of memory.
anorexia nervosa eating disorder with excessive dieting and refusal to maintain a normal body weight.
anxiety diorders Characterized by unpleasant tension, distress, and avoidance behavior; examples are phobias, obesssive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.
apathy absence of emotions; lack of interest or emotional involvement.
autistic thought thinking is internally stimulated and ideas have a private meaning; fantasy thought of as reality.
bipolar disorder mood disorder with alternating periods of mania and depression.
bulimia nervosa eating disorder with binge eating followed by vomiting, purging, and depression.
cannabis active substance in marijuana; THC
compulsion uncontrollable urge to perform an act repeatedly.
conversion disorder condition marked by physical symptoms with no organic basis, appearing as a result of anxiety and unconscious inner conflict.
defense mechanism unconscious technique (coping mechanism) a person uses to resolve or conceal conflicts and anxiety. It protects the individual against anxiety and stress; examples are acting out and denial.
delirium confusion in thinking; faulty perceptions and irrational behavior. Delirium tremens is associated with alcohol withdrawal.
delusion fixed, false belief that cannot be changed by logical reasoning or evidence.
dementia loss of intellectual abilities with impairment of memory, judgement, and reasoning as well as changes in personality.
depression major mood disorder with chronic sadness, loss of energy, hopelessness, worry, and discouragement and, commonly, suicidal impulses and thoughts.
dissociative disorder chronic or sudden disturbance in memory, idenity, or consciousness; examples are multiple personality disorder, psychogenic disorders,amnesia, and fugue.
ego central coordinating branch of the personality or mind.
fugue flight from customary surroundings; dissociative disorder.
gender idenity disorder strong and persistent cross-gender identification with the opposite sex.
hallucination false sensory perception (hearing voices and seeing things)
id major unconscious part of the personality; energy from instinctual drives and desires.
labile unstable, undergoing rapid emotional change.
mania extreme excitement, hyperactive elation, and agitation. Don't confuse with the suffix-mania (see pg 912), meaning obsession.
mood disorders prolonged emotion dominates a persons life; examples are bipolar and depressive disorders
mutism nonreactive state; stupor
neurosis repressed conflicts lead to mental symptoms such as anxiety and fears that disturb ability to function; less severe than a psychosis.
obsessive-compulsive disorder anxiety disorder in which recurrent thoughts and repetitive acts dominate behavior.
paranoia overly suspicious system of thinking; fixed delusions that one is being harassed, persecuted, or unfairly treated.
paraphilia recurrent intense sexual urge, fantasy, or behavior that involves unusual objects, activities, or situations.
personality disorders lifelong personality patterns marked by inflexibility and impairment of socal functioning.
pervasive developmental disorders group of childhood disorders chartacterized by delays in socialization and communication skills; autism and Asperger syndrome are examples.
phobia irrational or disabling fear (avoidance) of an object or situation.
post-traumatic stress disorder anxiety-related symptoms appear after personal experience of a traumatic event.
projective (personality) test diagnostic personality test using unstructured stimuli (inkblots, pictures, abstract patterns, incomplete sentences) to evoke responses that reflect aspects of an individual's personality.
psychiatrist physician (MD) with medical training in the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders. Ex: child psychiatrist and a forensic psychiatrist
psychologist nonmedical prefessional (often PhD or an EdD) specializing in mental processes and how the brain functions in health and disease.
psychosis a disorder marked by loss of contact with reality; often with delusions and hallucinations.
reality testing ability to percieve fact from fantasy; severely impaired in psychoses.
repression defense mechanism by which unacceptable thoughts, feelings, and impulses are automatically pushed into the unconscious.
schizophrenia a phychosis marked by withdrawal (split) from reality into an inner world of disorganized thinking and conflict.
sexual disorders disorders or paraphilias and sexual dysfunctions.
somatoform disorders having physical symptoms that connot be explained by any actual physical disorder or other well-described mental disorders such as depression.
substance-related disorders regular overuse of psychoactive substnce (alcohol, amphetamines, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, opioids, and sedative) that affect the central nervous system.
superego internalized conscience and moral part of the personality.
amphetamines central nervous system stimulants that may be used to treat depression and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
atypical antipsychotics drugs that treat psychotic symptoms and behavior
benzodiazepines drugs that lessen anxiety, tension, agitation, and panic attacks.
cognitive behavioral therapy conditioning is used to relieve anxiety and improve symptoms of illness.
electroconvulsive therapy electric current is used to produce changes in brain wave patterns with resulting convulsions and loss of consciousness; effective in the treatment of major depression. Modern techniques use anesthesia, so the convulsion is not observable.
family therapy treatment of an entire family to resolve and shed light on conflicts.
free association psychoanalytic technique in which the patient verbalizes, without censorship, the passing contents of his or her mind.
group therapy group of patients with similar problems gain insight into their personalities through discussion and interaction with each other.
hypnosis trance is used to increase the pace of psychotherapy.
insight-oriented therapy face-to-face discussion of life problems and assocaited feelings.
lithium medication used to treat the manic stage of manic-depressive illness.
neuroleptic drug any drug that favorably modifies psychotic symptoms. examples are atypical antipsychotics.
phenothiazines antipsychotic drugs
play therapy treatment in which a child, through use of toys in a playroom setting, expresses conflicts and feelings unable to be communicated in a direct manner.
psychoanalysis treatment that allows that patient to explore inner emotions and conflicts so as to understand and change current behavior.
psychodrama group therapy in which a patient expresses feelings by acting out family and socal roles with other patients.
psychopharmacology treatment of psychiatric diorders with drugs.
sedatives drugs that lessen anxiety
supportive psychotherapy offering encouragement support, and hope to patients facing difficult life transitions and events.
transference Psychoanalytic process in which that patient relates to the therapist as though the therapist were a prominent childhood figure.
tricyclic antidepressants drugs used to treat severe depression; three-ringed fused structure
Created by: vikingmedterm