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CNS Lesions

Brainstem, Brain and Spinal Cord Pathology

Problems with performing tasks (visuospatial, serial 7's, topographical, recognition) Parietal lobe lesion (MCA)
Problems with executive functioning, abstraction and sequencing (drawing a clockface, 3 stage command) and personality disturbances. Frontal lobe lesion (ACA, MCA)
Non-fluent aphasia. Speech is effortful with pauses, few verbs and only nouns. Problem repeating words but comprehension is intact. Broca's/expressive aphasia (inferior frontal gyrus)
Fluent aphasia with many errors in word use. Impaired reading, writing and repeating of words. Wernicke's/receptive aphasia (posterior superior and middle temporal gyri)
Fluent aphasia with difficulty repeating words. Comprehension is intact. Conducting aphasia (arcuate fasciculus)
Complete loss of language capabilities Global aphasia (large lesion in left hemisphere)
Language production is impaired but there is normal repetition Transcortical motor aphasia
Fluent language production and repetition but impaired comprehension. Transcortical sensory aphasia
Difficulty finding and using words. Language production is fluent and comprehension and repetition preserved. Anomic aphasia (small lesions in left hemisphere)
Hemiballismus Lesion to subthalamic nuclei or GPe
Balance and posture difficulties Vestibulocerebellar lesion (flocculonodular lobe)
Dysmetria (over or under shoot), ataxia, dsynergia Spinocerebellar lesion
Loss of control of ipsilateral mocements Cerebrocerebellar lesion
Ptosis, dilated down and out pupil Oculomotor nerve palsy (think aneursym of posterior communicating artery)
Sensory and contralateral homonymous hemianopia Posterior cerebral artery occlusion
Agnosia - a defect in association Posterior parietal lobe lesion
contralateral hemiparesis Lenticulostriate artery occlusion (MCA)
Contralateral lower limb weakness Anterior cerebral artery occlusion
Lateral Medullary Syndrome of Wallenberg Occlusion of PICA
Ipsilateral loss of CN V, nystagmus (CN VIII), no gag reflex, hoarse voice and dysphagia (nucleus ambiguus), contralateral loss of pain and temp (spinothalamic), ipsilateral ataxia and ipsilateral Horner's syndrome Loss of posterolateral medulla (PICA occlusion)
Ipsilateral deviation of tongue, contralateral limb weakness, contralateral loss of discriminative touch, proprioception and vibration Loss of medial medulla (ASA occlusion)
Bilateral loss of prorioception, ataxic gait, bladder dysfunction and spastic paralysis Posterior cord syndrome/section - caused by tabes dorsalis, B12 deficiency, diabetes, hypothyroidism and peripheral neuropathy
UMN paraplegis, loss of pain and temperature sensation, bladder dysfunction with preserved proprioception and vibration Anterior cord syndrome - disc prolapse, anterior spinal artery occlusion.
Loss of pain and temperature in the shoulders, neck and arms (dorsal horn), atrophy and areflexia of the arm (ventral horn), UMN signs in the lower limb with sacral sparing Central cord lesion - syringomyelia, cervical spondylosis, intramedullary masss and scoliosis
Contralateral loss of pain and temp 2 segments below, ipsilateral spastic paralysis below lesion with preserved ipsilateral proximal movements and flaccid paralysis at lesion. Ipsilateral loss of proprioceptino, vibration and discrim touch Brown-Sequard Syndrome
No cortical silence period Schizophrenia
Disorder of mirror neurons Autism (theory of mind perspective)
No build up of excitatory activity in the SMA and PMA Parkinson's (no feedback from basal ganglia)
Short term memory loss Mammillary body
Long term or episodic memory loss Hippocampus
Overactivity in amygdala and low activity in prefrontal cortex Predatory behaviour
Created by: Epoot