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Sormunen and Moiso (2009) Our bodies are marvelously intricate, decliate, and unique. Each part of the body has a purpose and function that fits into the total. Cells, tissues, organs, and systems are all part of the human anatomy.
Cells smallest living structure in the body; epithelial cell, nerve cell, muscle cell perform specialization functions, support (bone cells), communication (nerve cells), movement (muscle cell), oxygen transportation (red blood cells), & protection (skin cell
Tissues cells with similar function grouped together; epithelial tissue, mervous tissue, muscle tissue, connective tissue
Organs two or more types of tissues combined to work together ex:kidneys, lungs, heart, stomach, brain and liver)
Body(organ)systems: 2 or more organs comvined to provide a major body function ex:respiratory, nervous, digestive and urinary systems)
Cell membrane is the outer covering; it controls which substances enters and leaves the cell
cytoplasm (protoplasm) gel-like liquid inside the cell that consists of water, proteins, carbohydrates, lipids (fats) and salts
Organelles structure that have specialized functions
Nucleus controls the activity of the cell, reproduction; contains the 23 (normally) chromosomes that contain the genes that transmit hereditary characteristics
Mitochondrion produces energy used for cellular processes called the "POWERHOUSE"
Lysosome Contain various enzymes that help to digest (break down) molecules
Ribosomes produce protein for the cell structures
Golgi apparatus produces, stores, and packages products for discharge from the cell (transports proteins made by the ribosomes)
Centrioles play a role in the division of the cell (reproduction)
Endoplasmic reticulum network of tubular structures to facilitate transport of materials in and out of the nucleus
Vacuole storage unit
Four Types of Tissues Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, and Muscular
Epithelial covers the internal and external organs of the body;lines body cavities, vessels, glands and body organs
Connective holds parts of the body in place can be liquid (blood), fibrous (tendons and ligaments), solid (bone), fatty (protective padding) or cartilage (rings of the trachea)
Nervous transmits impulses throughout the body to activate, coordinate, and control many functions
Muscular contracts and relaxes to cause or allow movement; the 3 types are:skeletal, smooth (visceral), and cardiac
Skeletal attached to bone and cause movement of the skeleton
Smooth (viisceral) found in the walls of the hollow internal organs of the body (ex:stomach and intestines), blood vessels, and lung airways
Cardiac makes up the muscular wall of the heart
Anatomical position describes the body as full view in an upright position (standing), with the arms relaxed at the side of the body, palms facing forward, feet pointed forward, and eyes directed straight ahead
Body Planes an imaginary flat surface that cuts through the body either horizontally or vertically
Midsagittal (median or midline) Passes from top to bottom through the center of the body and divides it into equal right and left sides
Frontal plane (Coronal) Divides the body from top to bottom through the center and divides the body into front and back portions
Transverse Plan divides the body horizontally (crosswise) into the top and bottom portions
The Body Cavities interior spaces called cavities that contain and protect the internal organs.
Posterior (dorsal) body protects the structures of the nervous system and has 2 parts (although the space is continuously)
Cranial cavity located in the skull and contains the brain
Spinal cavity located withing the spinal column and contains the spinal cord
Anterior (ventral) body cavity protects internal organs and has 3 parts:Thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity
Thoracic cavity located in the chest and contains the heart, lungs, and major blood vessels; the diaphragm separates this cavity
Abdominal cavity Located in the abdomen and contains the stomach, intestines, liver, fallbladder, pancreas, and spleen (the kidneys are located behind the abdominal cavity); the abdominal and pelvic are continuous
Pelvic cavity Located in the lower abdomen and contains the urinary bladder, rectum, and reproductive organs
Smaller cavities eyes, and associated muscles, nerves, and ducts; the nasal which contains structures of the nose, and the buccal-teeth and tongue
Abdominal Descriptions divided into 9 regions:epigastric, right/left hypochondriac regions, umbilical, right/left lunbar regions, hypogastric, right/left iliac (hip bone) regions.
Epigasatric (over the stomach) located just below the sternum (breastbone)
Right and left hypochondriac regions located below the ribs on either side of the epigastric region
Umbilical located around the umbilicus (navel)
Right and left lumbar regions extend anterior to posterior on either side of the umbilical region (a person will complain of lumbar or back pain)
Hypogastric (below the stomach) located over the pubic area
Right and left iliac (hip bone) regions located on either side of the hypogastric region (also called right and left inguinal areas)
Right upper quadrant (RUQ) Liver and gallbladder
Right lower quadrant (RLQ) Appendix and some of the female reproductive
Left upper quadrant (LUQ) pancreas, stomach, and spleen
Left lower quadrant (LLQ) some of the female reproductive organs
lateral away from the body ex: the __________ ligament of the knee is located on the outer side of the knee
Medial towards the middle or center of the body ex: the naval is on the _________ line
Anterior (ventral) The breasts are on the ____________ surface of the body
Posterior (dorsal) toward the back of the body ex the buttocks are on the ________ surface of the body
Inferior below ex the lungs are _____________ to the head
Superior above ex the nose is __________ to the mouth
Caudal (cranial) closer to the head ex the neck is __________ to the shoulders
Deep farther from the body surface ex the accident victim had a deep laceration (wound or irregular tear) that exposed the muscle.
Superficial near or close to the body's surface ex there were only _________ scrapes on the skin
Distal farther from reference base point ex the hand is ____ to the elbow
Peripheral away from the center ex the patient had _____ edema (excess fluid in the extremities-arms/legs)
Proximal closer to reference point ex
Apex at the top (highest point) ex top of the lung is called the ____
base at the bottom (lowest point) ex the _______ of the lung is called the base
Atoms or Ions hold carbon hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen
Molecules sugars, proteins, and water
Created by: 100000296951062