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Pulmonolgy review 2

FEV1/FVC normal ratio? 75-85%
SaO2 normal? 97-100%
ABG values? -ph 7.35-7.45 -pO2 80-100 mmHg -pCO2 35-45 mmHg -HCO3 22-26 mEq normal
REVERSIBLE obstruction of airflow due to bronchial hyperreactivity, and inflammation of airway? asthma
Risk factors for exacerbation: #1 ATOPY, URI, exercise induced, GERD, drugs (ASA), weather changes? asthma
Symptoms: wheeze, prolonged expiration, dyspnea, cough? asthma
Asthma Severity Classifications? 12 or older Symptoms day <2/wk, night <2/month; FEV1 > 80% predicted intermittent
Asthma Severity Classifications? 12 or older Symptoms day >2/wk but NOT daily, night >2/month; FEV1 > 80% predicted mild persistent
Asthma Severity Classifications? 12 or older Daily symptoms, night > 1/month; FEV1 60-80% predicted moderate persistent
Asthma Severity Classifications? 12 or older Cont. daily symptoms w/ limited activity, night frequent, FEV1 < 60% severe persistent
Educate: Remove offending agent, daily peak flow meter? asthma tx
Rescue: Inhaled Beta2 Agonist (albuterol/levoalbuterol)? asthma tx
Maintenance: Inhaled Corticosteroids-rinse and spit after use? asthma tx
Other Rescue: inhaled anticholinergics (ipratropium), systemic corticosteroids? asthma tx
Other maintenance: inhaled long acting Beta2 agonist (salmeterol), leukotriene modifiers (montelukast)? asthma tx
-allergic Asthma (wheeze) -Seasonal Rhinites (hay fever) -Eczema ? atopic triad
-asthma -aspirin sensitivity -nasal polyps ? asthma triad
destruction of alveoli leading to dilated air spaces? emphysema
productive cough for > 3 months and at least 2 consecutive years? chronic bronchitis
#1 cause of COPD? smoking
progressive dyspnea, chronic productive cough, pursed lip breathing, fatigue? COPD
Exam: increased chest diameter, decreased breath sounds, prolonged expiration? copd
CXR: hyperinflation, flat diaphragm? copd
subpleural blebs and parenchymal bullae are pathognomonic? copd
Hypercapnia, hypoxemia, decreased FEV1, polycythemia possibly? copd
-Smoking cessation, pulmonary rehab -pneumococcal and influenza vaccines ? copd tx
Oxygen = only therapy shown to alter course of disease in pts. w/ hypoxemia? copd tx
Recue: short-acting inhaled beta2 agonist and anticholinergics? copd tx
maintenance: inhaled long acting anticholinergics? copd tx
+/- antibiotics due to risk of frequent infections? copd tx
-chronic bronchitis -overweight -cyanotic -pursed lip breathing -productive cough / mild dyspnea -lung = ronchi/wheeze ? copd blue bloater
-emphysema -thin -barrel chest -hyperventilation -pronounced dyspnea / minial cough -lungs = decreased breath sounds ? copd pink puffer
destruction of bronchial walls leading to permanent dilation? bronchiectasis
Causes: CF (50%), IgG deficiency, recurrent infections, tumor? bronchiectasis
cough, purulent/malodorous sputum, hemoptysis, recurrent pneumonia? bronchiectasis
CXR: honeycombing, atelectasis, basal systic spaces? bronchiectasis
Treat underlying pathology, pulmonary rehab? bronchiectasis tx
Multisystem disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas? sardoidosis
Dyspnea, nonproductive cough, fever, malaise, erythema nodosum, enlarged nodes and speen? sarcoidosis
labs = levated ESR, eosinophils, calcium, and ACE? sarcoidosis
CXR: bilateral perihilar lymphadenopathy? sarcoidosis
biopsy shows noncaseating granulomas? sarcoidosis
Most common diagnosis in pts. w/ intersititial lung disease? idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
dyspnea, cough, clubbing, -- all progressive? idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
serial CXR -- progressive fibrosis? idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
TX: no effective treatment known. steroids to control symptoms? idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis
Created by: duanea00