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chapter 4

TermDefinition
core The heart or inner part of a thing, as of a column, wall, rope, of a boil, etc.; especially, the central part of fruit, containing the kernels or seeds; as, the core of an apple or quince.
mantle the layer of the earth between the crust and the core
magma molten rock in the earth's crust [also: {magmata} (pl)]
plate tectonics the branch of geology studying the folding and faulting of the earth's crust
continental drift the gradual movement and formation of continents (as described by plate tectonics)
rift valleys a valley with steep sides; formed by a rift in the earth's crust
abyssal plains any of the great flat sediment-covered areas of ocean floor
continental shelves a shallow submarine plain of varying width forming a border to a continent and typically ending in a comparatively steep slope to the deep ocean floor
trench a long, narrow hole that is dug in the ground : a deep, narrow hole in the ground that is used as protection for soldiers : a long, narrow hole in the ocean floor
folds a group of people or institutions that share a common faith, belief, activity, or enthusiasm
faults a bad quality or part of someone's character : a weakness in character : a problem or bad part that prevents something from being perfect : a flaw or defect : responsibility for a problem, mistake, bad situation, etc.
weathering the action of the weather conditions in altering the color, texture, composition, or form of exposed objects; specifically : the physical disintegration and chemical decomposition of earth materials at or near the earth's surface
sediment material that sinks to the bottom of a liquid : material (such as stones and sand) that is carried into water by water, wind, etc.
erosion the gradual destruction of something by natural forces (such as water, wind, or ice) : the process by which something is eroded or worn away
glaciers a very large area of ice that moves slowly down a slope or valley or over a wide area of land
plateau a large flat area of land that is higher than other areas of land that surround it : a period when something does not increase or advance any further
alluvial fan the alluvial deposit of a stream where it issues from a gorge upon a plain or of a tributary stream at its junction with the main stream
delta the fourth letter of the Greek alphabet : a piece of land shaped like a triangle that is formed when a river splits into smaller rivers before it flows into an ocean : an area of low land along the Mississippi River that is mainly in the state of Mississi
desalinization to remove salt from (something, such as water)
hydrologic cycle the sequence of conditions through which water passes from vapor in the atmosphere through precipitation upon land or water surfaces and ultimately back into the atmosphere as a result of evaporation and transpiration —called also hydrological cycle
headwater source of a stream —usually used in plural
tributary paying tribute to another to acknowledge submission, to obtain protection, or to purchase peace : subject
watershed : a time when an important change happens : a line of hills or mountains from which rivers drain : a ridge between two rivers : the area of land that includes a particular river or lake and all the rivers, streams, etc., that flow into it
drainage basin an area of land from which the rain flows into a particular river or lake, etc.
estuaries the part of a river or other area of water where it joins the sea, and where fresh water and salt water are mixed
wetlands an area of land that is naturally wet
groundwater water that collects below the surface of the earth
water table the layer below the earth's surface where water is found
humus dark earth made of organic material such as decayed leaves and plants
leaching to remove a substance from a material, especially from earth, by the process of water moving through the material, or to remove parts of a material using water
contour plowing
soil salinization
deforestation
reforestation plant trees on an area of land that has become empty or spoiled
acid rain rain that contains large amounts of harmful chemicals as a result of burning substances such as coal and oil
aqueducts a structure for carrying water across land, especially one like a high bridge with many arches that carries pipes or a canal across a valley
aquifers a layer of rock, sand, or earth that contains water or allows water to pass through it
fossil water
ore rock or soil from which metal can be obtained
fossil fuels fuels, such as gas, coal, and oil, that were formed underground from plant and animal remains millions of years ago
petrochemicals
hydroelectric power
geothermal energy
Created by: jemostewart