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Unit II Early Man

Study Guide

BCE Before Common Era - any time before the birth of Jesus
CE Common Era - any time after the birth of Jesus
BC Before Christ - any time before the birth of Jesus
AD Anno Domini means year of the lord - any time after the birth of Jesus
Archeologist study the past by examining things people have left behind
Paleoanthropologist study the earliest humans
Prehistory any time before writing was invented since they could not record events
Australopithecus Afarensis earliest hominid we studied, they were bipeds, Australopithecus means "Southern Ape" and afarensis means Lucy was found in the Afar triangle in Africa, no man-made tools found, basic communication skills
Homo Erectus 3rd group we studied, biped, first to migrate out of Africa to Europe and Asia, first to use fire, first to use shelter, made more complex tools(The Hand Axe), name Homo Erectus means upright man (they were the first biped discovered)
Homo Sapiens Sapiens last group we studied, biped, created the most advanced tools (spear thrower, bow/arrow), semi-permanent shelter and fitted clothing, art, musical instruments, name means doubly wise
Artifacts an object made or used by people in the past (tools, bones, etc.) that scientists can study to learn more about the group's daily lives
Paleolithic Era the beginning of the stone age when people lived as nomadic hunters and gatherers following their food source
Biped walks on 2 feet
Nomad people who wander from place to place following their food source
Hominid prehistoric human (ancient human ancestors up to and including modern humans)
Migrate to move from one place to another
Homo Habilis second group of hominids studied, the nickname handy man comes from ability to make tools (sharp rocks, sticks for digging) biped, simple tools lived in small groups, Started the Old Stone Age (Paleolithic Era)
Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis 4th species we studied, biped, community cared for each other, made complex tools (rock-tipped spears, knives) lived and hunted in groups, co-existed with early modern man, Name means "wise man" from the Neander Valley in Germany (where they were found)
Specialization happens in a community which allows people to organize themselves more efficiently: • People became better at one job • Allowed more time for technology to advance • Allowed an increased surplus of products that began trading with others
Neolithic Age/Era (Neo – New Stone Age) • Began when people began to grow crops and domesticate animals • First permanent settlements • Ended when people learned to make tools from bronze, not stone
Domesticate (animals and plants) raising and using animals for food and to do work for humans
Who started the Paleolithic Era, and what was it that they did? Homo habilis established the Old Stone Age when they created the first stone tools.
Name 3 major achievements of the Paleolithic Era, and explain their importance. 1. 1st to make stone tools 2. mastered fire 3. people began to create temporary shelters
Identify 3 differences between the Paleolithic Era and the Neolithic Era. During Paleolithic Agepeople hunted and gathered, moved around following the food source and made stone tools. During the Neolithic Age people lived in more permanent settlements relying on farming and domesticating animals for food.
What 3 things enabled Homo erectus to survive for 1.6 million years? 1. the ability to make FIRE 2. the ability to build SHELTER 3. first to MIGRATE