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Advanced Patho EXAM 2

What is hypertension? elevation of blood pressure
What BP readings determine HTN? persistently above 140/90
List some risk factors of HTN. age, race (african americans), obesity, nutrition and familial tendencies
What is the most common cause of coronary artery disease (CAD)? atherosclerosis
What is CAD? disorder of impaired coronary blood flow
List some risk factors for CAD. F >55yrs; M >45yrs Family HX HTN, smoking, obesity,inactivity, poor diet, DM Lipids – total cholesterol >200 LDL >130, Trig >150 HDL<40
What is angina? chest pain assoc w/ intermittent myocardial ischemia in insufficient time to result in cell death
In females, how can angina present? as indigestion
What are the 3 types of angina? stable, prinzmetal, and unstable
What is stable angina is relieved by? rest and NTG (vasodilation and decreased workload)
Is prinzmetal angina predictable or unpredictable and why? unpredictable; may be due to spasms
What is a myocardial infarction (MI)? prolonged or total disruption of blood flow to myocardium causing irreversible cellular death
What is a transmural infarct? involves entire ventricular wall thickness, common & severe, nearly all are in L ventricular wall
Describe subendocardial infarction. less severe, most vulnerable to a reduction in blood flow, only portion of ventricular wall involved
True or false, the septum separates the heart into right and left sides. True
List the 4 heart chambers. Right atrium and ventricle; left atrium and ventricle
List the 2 valves on the right side of the heart. Pulmonary and tricuspid
List the 2 valves on the left side of the heart. Aortic and mitral (aka bicuspid)
Describe the circulatory pathway (how blood returns/leaves the heart) Systemic circulation, vena cava, R atrium, tricuspid valve, R ventricle, Pulmonic valve, Pulmonic trunk/Pulmonary artery, lungs, pulmonary vein, L atrium, mitral valve, L ventricle, aortic valve, aorta, systemic circulation
The right side of the heart returns blood to the lungs via __________? the pulmonary artery
The left side of the heart returns blood to the body via __________? aorta
Narrowing or stricture of a blood vessel is known as? stenosis
What is regurgitation? blood flows backwards
True or false, murmurs may be present in both stenosis or regurgitation? true
What is the most common septal defect? Ventricular septal defect (VSD)
What is VSD? an acyanotic (congestive) defect, opening b/t ventricles, produces increased workload for R side of heart
What kind of shunt/problems occur in VSD? L-to-R shunt, w/ continued high pulm blood flow, pulm vascular obstructive disease develops; can eventually lead to shunt reversal and cyanotic sympotms
What is transposition of great arteries? Aorta comes from R ventricle and pulmonary artery from L ventricle; resulting in 2 separate, non-communicating circulations =
What is the most common symptom in infant seen in transposition of great arteries? cyanosis
What is dilated cardiomyopathy and what is the treatment? dilation of all 4 heart chambers; heart transplant
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may cause what? small SV, sudden death, DOE, angina
What may cause paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea? restrictive cardiomyopathy
What is RAA? Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System
What happens if the RAA system is activated? If this system is activated, the following occurs: vasoconstriction increase BP hold on H2O & Na+
What are cardiac shunts? they create an abnormal blood flow path
What occurs with a right to left shunt? unoxygenated blood from the right side of heart enters the left and systemic circulation child may have cyanosis
What occurs with a left to right shunt? oxygenated blood from left side of heart enters the right and is re-circulated through the lungs acyanotic defect right side has increased workload due to extra blood, over time right ventricular hypertrophy may occur
Describe Atrial Septal Defect (ASD)? foramen ovale fails to close after birth acyanotic
If ASD is not correct, what may develop? RVH
What are the 2 acyanotic congenital heart defects? ASD and PDA
What is Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA)? suppose to close at birth; if it doesn't harsh murmur is present
What is the most common cyanotic congenital heart defect? Tetralogy of fallot
Cardiac muscle is called _________. myocardium
What does Tetralogy of fallot consist of? 4 heart defects
True or false, medications are used to treat Tetralogy of Fallot. False, total correction surgically is required.
What happens during the systole cardiac cycle? ventricles are contracting
When the ventricles are relaxed and filling, this is known as ____________? diastole portion of the cardiac cycle
Created by: lbl317537