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food security test 1

test 1 material

In what year did the pilgrims arrive in the new world? 1620
What were the Pilgrims hoping to accomplish during their exploration of Cape Code? Replenish stores of food and water, evaluate the area as a potential settlement, make contact with the native inhabitants
What had been responsible for reducing the native population prior to the Pilgrims arrival? Disease
Who was the first westerner to encounter corn in the Americas? Christopher Columbus
What percentage of the world's food plants originated in the Americas? 1/3
Who developed a mild blend of tobacco in 1612? John Rolfe
What was the population of Cahokia? Thirty Thousand
Why did the Pilgrims plant only Indian corn the second season in the New World? It yielded much better than their traditional crops
What did Winslow bring back to Plymouth in 1624? Cattle
What are the world's four principal food crops? Rice, Wheat, Corn , and potatoes
What is the size of the U.S. land mass? Over 1 1/2 billion aacres
who favored the distribution of land in small tracts to freehold farmers? Thomas Jefferson
Who favored the distribution of the land in large tracts? Alexander Hamilton
What was a common reason for plant and animal stocks being slow to improvement in early America? Prevailing religious thought held that the world was imperfect-able
What requirement did New England authorities impose before land could be settled? It had to be surveyed
What are some public institutions supported by the sale of public land? schools, land grant colleges, agricultural research stations
On what principle did William Penn found his colony? Brotherly Love
How was Peen's hamlet laid out? Pie- shaped wedges, with houses and stores close to each other
Who conducted the first scientific experiments in America? Ben Franklin
Why were plows used in the Eastern part of the United States but not adequate for the prairie farming? They could not break the tough prairie sod or shed the rich soils
What was the purpose of Congress's 1839 Seed Distribution Program? To get farmers to experiment with new plants in territories opening up to settlements
What were the two responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Agriculture when it was first established? To collect statistics and to administer the seed distribution program
What were the two types of Indian corn crossed in Robert Reid's corn field in 1846? Gourdseed and Flint
Why did the Wallace's of Iowa contest the value of the Iowa Corn Shows? The shows rated corn on its appearance rather than on nutrition of yield
What were the four humors held by farmers to determine the health of plants and animals? Earth, Fire, air, water
What were three ways of fighting the boll weevil infestation in Texas at the turn of the century? Earlier spring planting, deeper plowing, crop rotation
What were some of the innovations in agriculture derived from science? Animal vaccines, pesticides, control methods against diseases
What principles were the seed trains and the demonstration forms based on? Showing rather than telling
What three institutions correspond to to the following areas of endeavors... Study?... Research?... Outreach to farmers? study-the land grant "agricultural" colleges Research-the agriculture experiment stations Outreach to farmers-the agricultural extension services
Name some of the professional and educational interests of George Washington Carver... Religious ministry, botany, art
Why were Southern merchants able to set the terms of trade with the sharecroppers who came to trade a portion of their crop for food and supplies? Because the sharecroppers had only one crop to trade (cotton) and the merchants set the price
Where did the Grangers focus their anger? On the railroad
What inventions revolutionized the beef industry? Refrigeration
What region became the wheat growing center of the United Stated after the Civil War? The Great Plains
In what crops of products did farmers specialize South? Perishable fruits and vegetables
In what crops or products did farmers specialize in Wisconsin and the North Atlantic States? Dairy Products
In what crops or products did farmers specialize in California and the southwest? Citrus, nuts, and dates
What important legal issue was decided in the farmer's favor in 1876? states had the right to regulate railroads
What two ideas dominated the farmer's movements? Easy credit, cooperative buying and selling arrangements
What were some of the departments Tama Jim Wilson established during his tenure as secretary of the U.S. Department of Agriculture? Chemistry, entomology, soils, and animal science
Name some of the inventions of the 20th century... The steam engine, railroads, telegraphy, ocean liners, telephones, electric lights, and cash register
What percentage of the American population were farmers during Thomas Jefferson's time? 96%
What period has been called the "golden age" for the American farmer? 1890-1920
Why did farmers produce more during this time period ( 1890-1920)? Growing population in the U.S. and demand for American food in Europe
In what sense could farmers be considered as belonging to the laboring class? they did their own work
IN what sense could farmers be considered as belonging to management? they owned the means of production in the form of land and equipment
What was the "fall-of-farm" income between 1929 and 1932? Farm income 1932 was 1/3 of what it had been in 1929
What was the issue in the Judge Bradley incident in LeMars, Iowa? Farm foreclosure
What was the root of the farm problem in 1933? Overproduction
What was the goal of Aaron Sapiro? To unite food producers into one giant cooperative
Why did the U.S. Grain Growers Association fail? Farmers were too independent to be organized successfully
How did Secretary Wallace intend to solve the farm overproduction problem and conserve the soil? By taking land out of production, both problems would be solved: land would be conserved and overproduction curbed
What event was the catalyst in the over-plowing of land in the United States WW I
What was the New Deal's solution to the problem of farmers forced off their land? The rural resettlement administration
What book and film came out of a personal experience with the Depression Era farmers? The Grapes of Wrath
How was Henry A. Wallace's image of the farmer different from that of Thomas Jefferson? Jefferson saw farmers as an independent freeholder of the land; Wallace saw the farmer as caretakers of the land
What decade saw a larger increase in corn yields in teh Untied States? 1933-1943
What was one of the major causes of the increase Hybrids
What was one of the results of the rediscovery of Mendel's laws of genetics? Plant exploration
Which Soviet scientist pioneered the effort to obtain genetic breeding material? Nikolai Vavilov
What disease afflicted Mexican wheat when Dr. Borlaug arrived in 1943? Stem Rust
What name was given to the plant breeding method adopted by Borlaug? Shuttle breeding
Explain shuttle breeding Seed was shuttled back and forth between summer and winter breeding centers
In addition to disease resistance, there was an unexpected result of the Mexican wheat breeding program. What was it? The wheat was well adapted to different environmental conditions
What two countries became the beneficiaries of the Mexican wheat program India and Pakistan
In what year did the International Rice Research Institute produce the new strains of rice? 1960
What is gene splicing> The introduction of a gene from one plant or animal to another plant or animal
What institution in the United States coordinates germplasm conservation? The National Germplasm Resources Laboratory
What percentage of the U.S. work force is involved in producing, processing and distributing food? 30%
Created by: ALux