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Chapter 10


Heart muscular cone-shaped organ the size of a fist, located behind the sternum (breast bone) and between the lungs.
Atrioventricular Valves consist of the tricuspid and mitral valves, which lie between the right atrium and the right ventricle and the left atrium and left ventricle, respectively.
semilunar valves pulmonary and aortic valves located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery and between the left ventricle and the aorta, respectively.
pericardium two-layer sac surrounding the heart, consisting of an external fibrous and an internal serous layer. The serous layer secretes a fluid that facilitates movement of the heart.
Three Layers of the Heart epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
epicardium covers the heart
myocardium middle, thick, muscular layer
endocardium inner lining of the heart
blood vessels tubelike structures that carry blood away from the heart.
arteries blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart.
pulmonary artery carries carbon dioxide and other waste products from the heart to the lungs.
arterioles smallest arteries
aorta largest artery in the body, originating at the left ventricle and descending through the thorax and abdomen.
veins blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart.
Pulmonary veins carry blood containing carbon dioxide and other waste products. Carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the heart.
venules smallest veins
venae cavae largest veins in the body.
inferior vena cava carries blood to the heart from body parts below the diaphragm.
Superior vena cava returns the blood to the heart from the upper part of the body.
capillaries microscopic blood vessels that connect arterioles with venules.
Blood composed of plasma and formed elements, such as erythrocytes, leukocytes, and thrombocytes.
plasma clear, straw-colored, liquid portion of blood in which cells are suspended. Plasma is approximately 90% water and comprises approximately 55% of the total blood volume.
erythrocytes red blood cells that carry oxygen. Erythrocytes develop in bone marrow.
leukocytes white blood cells that combat infection and respond to inflammation. There are five types of white blood cells.
platelets (thrombocytes) one of the formed elements in the blood that is responsible for aiding in the clotting process.
serum clear, watery fluid portion of the blood that remains after a clot has formed.
lymph transparent, colorless, tissue fluid that, on entering the lymphatic system, is called lymph. It contains Lymphocytes and monocytes that flows in a one-way direction to the heart. Lymph is similar to blood plasma.
lymphatic vessels similar to veins, lymphatic vessels transport lymph from body tissues to the chest, where it enters the cardiovascular system.
lymph nodes small, spherical bodies composed of lymphoid tissue.
Spleen located in the left side of the abdominal cavity between the stomach and the diaphragm.
thymus gland one of the primary lymphatic organs, it is located anterior to the ascending aorta and posterior to the sternum between the lungs.
angi/o vessel (usually refers to blood vessels)
aort/o aorta
arteri/o artery
atri/o atrium
cardi/o heart
lymph/o lymph, lymph tissue
lymphaden/o lymph node
myel/o bone marrow
phleb/o, ven/o vein
plasm/o plasma
splen/o spleen
thym/o thymus gland
valv/o, valvul/o valve
ventricul/o ventricle
ather/o yellowish, fatty plaque
ech/o sound
electr/o electricity, electrical activity
isch/o deficiency, blockage
therm/o heat
thromb/o clot
brady- slow
-ac pertaining to
-apheresis removal
-graph instrument used to record; record
-penia abnormal reduction in number
-poiesis formation
-sclerosis hardening
angioma tumor composed of blood vessels
angiostenosis narrowing of a blood vessel
aortic stenosis narrowing, pertaining to aorta
arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries
atherosclerosis hardening of fatty plaque
bradycardia condition of a slow heart (rate less than 60 beats per minute)
cardiomegaly enlargement of the heart
cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscle
endocarditis inflammation of the inner (lining) of the heart (particularly heart valves)
ischemia deficiency of blood (flow)
myocarditis inflammation of the muscle of the heart
pericarditis inflammation of the sac surrounding the heart
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
polyarteritis inflammation of many (sites in the) arteries
tachycardia condition of a rapid heart (rate of more than 100 beats per min)
thrombophlebitis inflammation of a vein associated with a clot
valvulitis inflammation of a valve (of the heart)
hematoma tumor of blood (collection of blood resulting from a broken blood vessel)
multiple myeloma tumors of the bone marrow
pancytopenia abnormal reduction of all (blood) cells
thrombosis abnormal condition of a (blood) clot
thrombus (blood) clot (attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein)
lymphadenitis inflammation of the lymph nodes
lymphadenopathy disease of the lymph nodes (characterized by abnormal enlargement of the lymph nodes associated with an infection of malignancy)
lymphoma tumor of lymphatic tissue (malignant)
splenomegaly enlargement of the spleen
thymoma tumor of the thymus gland
acute coronary syndrome (ACS) sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart indicating unstable angina or acute myocardial infarction
aneurysm ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
angina pectoris chest pain, which may radiate to the left arm and jaw, that occurs when there is an insufficient supply of blood to the heart muscle.
arrhythmia any disturbance or abnormality in the heart's normal rhythmic pattern.
atrial fibrillation (AFib) a cardiac arrhythmia characterized by chaotic, rapid electrical impulses in the atria.
cardiac arrest sudden cessation of cardiac output and effective circulation, which requires cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)
cardiac tamponade acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity.
coarctation of the aorta congenital cardiac condition characterized by a narrowing of the aorta.
congenital heart disease heart abnormality present at birth
congestive heart failure inability of the heart to pump enough blood through the body to supply the tissues and organs with nutrients and oxygen.
coronary artery disease a condition that reduces the flow of blood through the coronary arteries to the myocardium, denying the myocardial tissue of sufficient oxygen and nutrients to function fully
coronary occlusion obstruction of an artery of the heart, usually from atherosclerosis.
deep vein thrombosis condition of thrombus in a deep vein of the body.
Created by: Rosaria Scardino Rosaria Scardino