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Cerebral Vasculature

Cerebral Vasculature (NEURO)

___ seconds of circulatory suspension will result in loss of consciousness and irreversible damage can occur in ____ minutes 10-12 seconds, 3-5 minutes
both vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries
internal carotid vs vertebral artery supplies what? internal carotid supplies anterior portion of brain and vertebral artery supplies posterior portion
internal carotid a and vertebral a. join via the? circle of willis
circle of willis includes the following arteries: posterior cerebral a., posterior communicating a., internal carotid a., middle cerebral a., anterior cerebral a., anterior communicating a.
Segment of the internal carotid artery in the neck is the cervical part
Segment of the internal carotid artery in the petros part of the temporal bone petros part
Segment of the internal carotid artery in the cavernous sinus cavernous part
Segment of the internal carotid artery as it piereces the dura and enters the brain intracranial (cerebral) part
Name 4 branches of the internal carotid artery cervical, petros, cavernous, intracranial (cerebral) part
the two important branches of the cerebral part of the internal carotid artery are opthalmic and posterior communicating arteries
the opthalmic branch of the cerebral part of the internal carotid artery enters through the ____ and eventually runs with the _____ inside the dura and forms the _____artery to supply the _____ the opthalmic branch of the cerebral part of the internal carotid artery enters through the _optic foramen___ and eventually runs with the _optic nerve____ inside the dura and forms the __central retinal artery___artery to supply the _retina____
the posterior communicating arteries arise from____ to join the vertebrobasilar system internal carotid a.
interruption of the ___artery can result in significant vision loss in the ipsilateral eye central retinal artery
cerebral part of the internal carotid artery ends by dividing into____ anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries
anterior cerebral artery runs medially over the _____ to a near midline position and is joined to its contralateral counterpart by the ____a. anterior cerebral artery runs medially over the _optic chiasm____ to a near midline position and is joined to its contralateral counterpart by the _anterior communicating___a.
anterior cerebral artery supplies what? medial aspect of frontal and parietal lobes
the anterior/middle/posterior cerebral artery is NOT part of the circle of willis middle cerebral
the anterior/middle/posterior cerebral artery is the larger of the terminal branches of the internal carotid middle cerebral artery
the middle cerebral artery moves laterally through the ______ outward, giving off branches to the basal ganglia and branches to the _______aspects of the ______lobe. the middle cerebral artery moves laterally through the _Sylvian cistern_____ outward, giving off branches to the basal ganglia and branches to the _lateral and rostral______aspects of the _temporal_____lobe.
deep branches that arise from the middle cerebral artery also supply the _____. genu and posterior limb of the internal capsule
the ____artery supplies a central area of the cerebral cortex that is surrounded by other arterial territories (those of the anterior and posterior cerebral arteries) middle cerebral artery
the_____ does nto supply any of the medial aspect of the cerebral hemisphere middle cerebral artery
the ____ begins as the vertebral arteries. The vertebral arteries enter the cranial vault through the ____ posterior circulation; foramen magnum
the upper spinal cord, medulla, and cerebellum are supplied by the internal carotid/vertebral artery vertebral artery
the vertebral arteries branch off to ____ and ____ branches in the spinal cord anterior, posterior
branches of the basilar artery supplies the cerebellum, medulla, pons
basilar artery coming from the vertebral artery ends in the ____ posterior cerebral artery
posterior cerebral artery supplies the? midbrain; thalamus; anterior and medial surface of the temporal lobe; ventral and medial surfaces of the temporal and occipital lobes; MAINLY OCCIPITAL LOBE
large collecting veins associated w/ the dura mater are called ___ dural sinuses
cerebral and spinal veins have valves T/F False; no valves! flow can be altered by pathological processes
dural sinuses will drain into the _____ internal jugular veins
dural sinuses contain blood and CSF
name 2 major dural sinuses superior sagittal sinus and transverse sinus
superior sagittal sinus, transverse sinus, and straight sinus meet at the confluence of sinuses
the straight sinus begins at the junction of ___ and ____ inferior sagittal sinus and inferior margin of the falx cerebri
the superior sagittal sinus/transverse sinus/straight sinus receives blood from deep brain structures straight sinus
the transverse sinus drain into the ____ sinus that is continuous with the internal jugular vein out the cranium through the ______ sigmoid sinus, jugular foramen
meningeal hemorrhages is bleeding in the epidural or subdural space
parenchymatous is what kind of hemorrhage? cerebral hemorrhage; bleeding into the brain itself
name 4 types of hemorrhages meningeal, subarachnoid, intraventricular, parenchymatous/cerebral hemorrhage
skull fracture typically results in what kind of brain hemorrhage and damage to what arteries? epidural hemorrhage causes damage to the dural arteries that run between skull and dura
subdural hematomas typically caused by impact trauma that tears cerebral veins
subarachnoid hemorrhages are caused by cerebral surface vessels bleeding into the subarachnoid space
a typical cause of this type of hemorrhage are aneurysms and high blood pressure intraventricular hemorrhage
meningeal/subarachnoid/intraventricular/parenchymatous(cerebral) hemorrhage is usually due to the rupture of small vessels such as lenticulostriate arteries that supply the internal capsule cerebral hemorrhage
meningeal/subarachnoid/intraventricular/parenchymatous(cerebral) hemorrhage typically occur as small restricted areas (lacunae) of bleeding (lacunar stroke) cerebral hemorrhage
hypertension, diabetes and atherosclerotic disease are risk factors for meningeal/subarachnoid/intraventricular/parenchymatous(cerebral) hemorrhage cerebral hemorrhage
this is anatomical and physiological barrier to the movement of many substances into and out of the brain at the level of the capillaries blood brain barrier
the BBB has _____ between capillary endothelial cells that allow passage of ion species and large large macromolecules fenestrations
capillaries in the brain have _____ between the endothelial cells. in addition they have _____ that surround the endothelial cells from the outside of the capillary tight junctions; astrocyte processes
_____ maintain tight control of potassium ions that exist in the CNS astrocyte processes
astrocyte processes maintain tight control of Na+/K+/Ca2+/Cl- ions that exist in the CNS K+ (potassium ions)
drugs bound to protein pass through the _____ in the BBB fenestrations
How does size, lipid solubility, active transport affect how rapid molecules enter the brain? fastest entry: smaller size, more lipid soluble, molecules that are actively transported (amino acids)
"second circulation" of the CNS is considered ventricles and subarachnoid spaces
ependyma is another name for the ______ and is made of this type of cells ventricle surfaces; simple cuboidal
junction between lateral ventricles and the third ventricle is the Foramen of Monro aka interventricular foramen
the interventricular foramen connects the lateral ventricles and the third ventricle
communication from the third ventricle to the 4th one communicates through the cerebral aqueduct
ionic composition of CSF is similar to ____ blood plasma
CSF is has alot/little protein and alot/little cells very little protein and very little cells
____ produces CSF in the ventricles choroid plexus
The foramen_____ allows CSF to flow laterally out of the 4th ventricle Luschka
The foramen ______ allows CSF to flow from 4th ventricle out under the vermis of the cerebellum Magendie
there is/are one/two foramen Luschka and one/two foramen Magendie two foramen Luschka and one foramen Magendie
3 primary functions of CSF buyoancy (shock absorber with arachnoid trabeculae), deliver some elements and remove waste, compensate for changes in intracranial blood volume
choroid plexus is mostly located in the lateral/third/4th ventricle; to a lesser extent in the lateral/third/4th ventricles lateral ventricles; third and 4th ventricles
the production of CSF from the choroid plexus is an active/passive process active (requires energy)
the majority of the CSF is produced from the choroid plexus and the rest is made from the ______ parenchyma as a flow of extracellular fluid including waste products into the ventricles
CSF is produced at a rate of _____ ml/day, but the ventricles and subarachnoid space contain only ____ml. 450-500ml; 65-150ml
normal pressure of the CSF is _____ mm of H2O.......... 50-180
the sequence of CSF flow is... most produced in the choroid plexus of the lateral ventricles -> third ventricle through the Foramen Munroe ->cerebral aqueduct -> 4th ventricle -> subarachnoid space
subarachnoid space contains CSF and arachnoid trabeculae (surface vessels of the brain)
CSF empties into the venous circulation through specializations of the dura/arachnoid/pia mater, which are the dura/arachnoid/pia mater ______ that are associated with the dural sinuses arachnoid mater; arachnoid mater villi
collections of arachnoid mater villi are called arachnoid ________ granulations
arachnoid granulations are most visible along the superior sagittal/inferior/straight sinus superior sagittal
hydrocephalus is _____ expansion not restricted by closed skull bones, so expansion of the ____ as a whole may occur ventricular; cranium
increased intracranial pressure occurs because CSF is prevented from circulating back into venous sinuses which enlarges one or more of the ventricles usually at the expense of vascular space
2 types of hydrocephalus are noncommunicating, communicating
communicating/noncommunicating hydrocephalus is when there is an increase of CSF is some parts of the ventricles due to obstruction of the flow of CSF at the cerebral aqueduct or the three Foramina noncommunicating
communicating/noncommunicating is when the flow of CSF into the venous system is blocked commonly caused by congenital absence of ______ by subarachnoid hemorrhage or infection communicating; arachnoid villi
meningitis is an example of communicating/noncommunicating hydrocephalus communicating (due to arachnoid villi blockage)
papilledema is caused by elevated CSF pressure transfer to the optic nerve (back of the eye)
papilledema occurs because the increased intracranial pressure may reduce axoplasmic flow in the ______ and interfere with venous return from the _____ causing ischemia optic nerve; retina
Created by: adriennemar