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World Geography 84

Chapter 3&4 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
1.Culture The way of life that distinguishes a people, for example, government, language, religion, customs, and beliefs
2.Population Density The average number of people living in a given area
3.Birthrate The number of live births each year per 1,000 people
4.Immigrant A person who moves into a country
5.Emigrant A person who leaves a country to live elsewhere
6.Urbanization The grow of city populations
7.Rural Of, or characteristic of, the countryside
8.Culture Hearth A place in which important ideas begin and thereafter spread to surrounding cultures
9.Cultural Convergence The contact and interaction of one culture with another
10.Diffusion The process by which a cultural element is transmitted from one group or individual to another
11.Cultural Divergence The restriction of a culture from outside influences
12.Sovereingty A country's freedom and power to decide on policies and actions
13.Unitary System A system of government in which one central government holds most of the political power
14.Federation A government structure in which some powers are given to the national government and other powers are reserved for more local governments
15.Confederation A system of government in which individual political units keep their sovereignty but give limited power to a central government
16.Authoritarian Descriptive of a system of government in which the leader holds all political power
17.Dictatorship A system of government in which absolute power is held by a small group or one person
18.Totalitarianism A system of government in which a central authority controls all aspects of society
19.Monarchy A system of Authoritarian government headed by a monarch- A king, queen, shah, or sultan- whose position is usually inherited
20.Democracy A system of government in which the people are invested with the power to choose their leaders and determine government policy
21.Traditional Economy An economic system in which families produce goods and services for their own use, with little surplus and exchange of goods; also known as a subsistence economy
22.Market Economy An economic system in which decisions about production, price, and other economic factors are determined by the law of supply and demand
23.Command Economy An economic system that is controlled by a single central government
24.Natural Resource A material in the natural environment that people value and use to satisfy their needs
25.Renewable Resource A natural resource that the environment continues to supply or replace as it is used
26.Nonrenewable Resource A natural resource that cannot be replaced once it is used
27.Fossil Fuel Any one of several nonrenewable mineral resources formed from the remains of ancient plants and animals and used for fuel
28.Nuclear Energy A type of energy produced by fission- the splitting of uranium atoms in a nuclear reactor, releasing stored energy
29.Water Power Energy produced from falling water to move machinery or generate electricty
30.Geothermal Energy Energy produced from the earth's intense interior heat
31.Solar Energy Energy produced by the sun
32.Primary Economic Activity An economic activity that takes or uses natural resources directly, such as fishing or mining
33.Subsistence Farming Farming that provides only enough for the needs of a family or a village
34.Commercial Farming The raising of crops and livestock for sales in markets
35.Secondary Economic Activity An economic activity in which people use raw materials to produce or manufacture new products of greater value
36.Cottage Industry A small-scale manufacturing operation using little technology, often located in or near people's homes
37.Commercial Industry A large-scale manufacturing operation that employs many people and produces large quantities of goods
38.Tertiary Economic Activity An economic activity in which people do not directly gather or process raw materials but pursue activities that serve others; service industry
39.Quaternary Economic Activity An economic activity that focuses on the acquisition, processing, and sharing of information, such as education or research
40.Export An item that is sent out of the country for sale
41.Import An item that is brought into the country for sale
Created by: Diego Solis