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OGT Life Science

OGT Life Science Power Vocab

QuestionAnswer
alleles Different versions of the same gene
antibody A specific protein substance produced by the body's immune (defence) system in response to an antigen (foreign substance)
binary fission A method of asexual reproduction in which the parent cell divides into two equal, or nearly equal, parts, each of which develops to parental size and form
cell The basic subunit of any living organism; the simplest unit that can exist as an independent living system
DNA The material inside the nucleus of cells that carries genetic information. The scientific name is deoxyribonucleic acid
gene The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.
genus A general grouping of organisms sharing more common traits than those of a family, and which is the first part of the scientific name. The first letter of the name of the genus is always capitalized
homeostasis State of balance between the inside of the body and the external environment
immunity The ability of an organism to resist disease by identifying and destroying harmful foreign substances or organisms
inherited Transmitted through genes that have been passed from parents to their offspring (children).
meiosis A special form of cell division in which each daughter cell receives half the amount of DNA as the parent cell. Meiosis occurs during formation of egg and sperm cells in mammals
mitosis The process of division of somatic cells in which each daughter cell receives the same amount of DNA as the parent cell
mutations a change in the usual DNA sequence of a particular gene that prevents the gene from working normally
organism An individual living system, such as animal, plant or micro-organism, that is capable of reproduction, growth and maintenance
pathogen Any disease-producing microorganism or material
photosynthesis The process by which plants convert water and carbon dioxide into carbohydrates, using sunlight as the source of energy and the aid of chlorophyll
Punett Square A learning tool for determining the possible outcomes of a given cross between individuals
recessive Refers to a gene that is masked unless there are two of the same gene present. In genetics these genes are denoted with lower case letters
respiration The process in which an organism uses oxygen for its life processes and gives off carbon dioxide
trait A distinguishing characteristic or quality of an organism
vaccination A form of immunization in which killed or weakened microorganisms are placed into the body, where antibodies against them are developed; if the same types of microorganisms enter the body again, they will be destroyed by the antibodies
virus a microscopic particle that can infect the cells of a biological organism. Viruses can replicate themselves only by infecting a host cell. They therefore cannot reproduce on their own
Created by: adotson on 2008-05-06



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