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Geography ch 1-3

ch 1-3

TermDefinition
Gender-Related Development Index (GDI) a composite indicator of gender equality assessing the standard of living in a country
Geography a science that deals with the description, distribution, and interaction of the diverse physical, biological, and cultural features of the earth's surface
geomorphology the study of landforms
globalization increasing interconnectedness of different parts of the world through common processes of economic, environmental, political, and cultural change.
global north highest levels of economic development, mostly in northern latitudes
global south lowest levels of economic development, mostly in southern latitudes
global warming an increase in world temperatures and change in climate associated with increasing levels of carbon dioxide and other trace gases resulting from human activities such as deforestation and fossil-fuel burning
greenhouse gases emissions produced by usage of fossil fuels that contribute to global climate change.
gross domestic product (GDP) an estimate of the total value of all materials, foodstuffs, goods, and services produced by a country in a particular year
Gross National Income (GNI) the net value of income from abroad (flows of profits and losses from overseas investments)
Human Development Index (HDI) a United Nations metric based on measures of life expectancy, educational attainment, and personal income
imperialism the extension of the power of a state through the direct or indirect control of the economic and political life of other territories
Industrial Revolution a rapid major change in an economy (as in England in the late 18th century) marked by the general introduction of power-driven machinery or by an important change in the prevailing types and methods of use of such machines
International Monetary Fund (IMF) provides loans to governments throughout the world
Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) the region where air flows together and rises vertically as a result of intense solar heating at the equator, often with heavy rainfall
invasive species Non-native species disrupting and replacing native species.
language a way of communicating ideas of feelings by means of a conventionalized system of signs, gestures, marks, or articulated vocal sounds
lingua franca a language that is used among people who speak various different languages, often for trading purposes
nation a group of people sharing common elements of culture, such as language and religion
nationalism the feeling of belonging to a nation as well as a belief that a nation has a natural right to determine its own affairs
nation-state an ideal form consisting of a homogeneous group of people, living in the same territory, and governed by their own state
neoliberalism promotes a reduction in the role and budget of government, including reduced subsides and the privatization of formerly publicly owned and operated concerns such as utilities
Neolithic Of or relating to the cultural period of the Stone Age beginning around 10,000 b.c. in the Middle East and later elsewhere, characterized by the development of agriculture and the making of polished stone implements.
nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) a formally constituted organization that is not a part of the government and are not conventional for-profit business (ex: humanitarian group)
orographic precipitation rain or snow that falls when moisture-laden air, which has blown over warm oceans, encounters a landmass, especially coastal mountains.
physical geography branch of geography dealing with natural features and processes
physiography branch of geography dealing with natural features and processes, aka physical geography
plantation economies the classic institution of colonial agriculture that were extensive, European-owned, operated, and financed enterprises where single crops were produced by local or imported labor for a world market
plate tectonics theory that explains how Earth's crust is divided into large solid plates that move relative to each other and cause mountain-building, volcanic, and earthquake activity when they separate or meet
primary sector economic activity concerned directly with natural resources of any kind
purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita measures how much of a common "market basket" of goods and services each currency can purchase locally, including goods and services that are not traded internationally
quaternary sector economic activity that deals with handling and processing of knowledge and information
race a problematic and illusory classification of human beings based on skin color and other physical characteristics
racialization the practice of creating unequal castes where whiteness is considered the norm
region a part of a country, of the world, etc., that is different or separate from other parts in some way
regionalization the geographer's classification of individual places or areal units; it is the geographer's equivalent of scientific classification
religion a belief system and a set of practices that recognizes the existence of a power higher than humankind
secondary sector economic activity involving the processing, transformation, fabrication, or assembly of raw materials or the reassembly, refinishing, or packaging of manufactured goods.
sexuality a set of practices and identities related to sexual acts and desires
social movements large, informal groupings of individuals and organizations that focus on social or political issues
sovereign state exercises power over a territory and people and is recognized by other states with its independent power codified in international law
supranational organizations collections of individual states with a common goal that may be economic or political and that diminish individual state sovereignty in favor of member states' interests
tertiary sector sale and exchange of goods and services
weather the instantaneous or immediate state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place
Created by: me505