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Adverse efffect

Different systems and effects

CNS effects may result from either CNS stimulation (excitement) or CNS depression *If CNS stimulation is expected,clients may be at risk for seizures and precautions should be taken *If CNS depression is likely,advise clients not to drive or participate in other activities that can be dangerous.
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) (abnormal body movents) can include involuntary fine motors tremors,rigidity,uncontrollable restlessness,and acute dystonias (spastic movements and/or muscle rigidity affecting the head,neck,eyes,facial area,and limbs) *EPS are more often associated with medications affecting the CNS,such as those used to treat mental health disorders. *Instruct clients to report symptoms to providers.
Anticholinergic effects are side effects that are a result of muscarinic receptor blockade. Most effects are seen in the eyes,smooth muscle,exocrine glands,and the heart. *Advise clients to relieve dry mouth by sipping on liquids; manage photophobia by useof sunglasses; and reduce urinary retention by urinating before taking the medication.
Cardiovascular effects can involve blood vessels and the heart. For example,antihypertensives can cause orthostatic hypotension.(Low BP based on position change lightheadedness,dizziness) *Advise clients to change positions slowly,and if feeling light headed or dizzy, to sit or lie down.
Gastrointestional (GI) effects can results from local irritation of the GI tract.Stimulation of the vomiting center also results in adverse effects. NSAIDS can cause GI upset. Advise clients to take these medications with food.
Hematologic effects are relatively common and potentially life-threatening with some groups of medications. Bone marrow depression/suppression is generally associate with anticancer medications and hemorrhagic disorders with anticoagulants and thrombolytics.Educate clients about signs and symptoms of bleeding(bruising,discolored urine/stool,bleeding gums)
Hepatoxicity=most meds are metabolized in the liver, the liver is vulnerable to drug-induced injury.Damage to liver cells can impair metabolism of many medications,causing medication accumulation in the body and producing adverse effects. *when two or more meds that are hepatotxic are combined,the risk for liver damage is increased. *clients starting a medication known to be hepatotoxic should have baseline liver function tests performed and periodically thereafter.
Nephrotoxitcity can occur with a # of meds,but is primarily the results of certain antimicrobial agents and NSAIDs.Damage to the kidneys can interfere with meds excretion leading to medication accumalation and adverse effects. Aminoglycosides can cause renal damage.Monitor serum creatinine and BUN levels of clients an aminoglycoside.
Created by: Danzel