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Reproduction

BYU PdBio 305 Dr. Rhees Reproduction

QuestionAnswer
gonadal development depends on what Y chromosome
how does the presence of a Y chromosome result in a male? sex-determining region Y gene (SRY) is present on the short arm of the Y chromosome and ecodes for a protein called the Testis Determining Factor (TDF). This protein induces the formation of the testes
primary sex structures ovaries, testes
development of secondary sex structures depends on presence or absence of the hormone testosterone
androgens testes secrete androgens and make male structures; ovaries can't secrete androgens resulting in female structures
wolffian ducts up unti the 7th week of development, embryos of each sex posses wolffian ducts (form internal male structures
mullerian ducts up unti the 7th week of development, embryos of each sex posses mullerian ducts (form internal female structures)
mullerian inhibiting factor causes regression of the mullerian ducts; females become females because of lack of mullerian inhibiting factor and testosterone
human chorionic gonadotropin hormone released by the placenta; stimulates early testicular secretion of testosterone which induces develpment of the wolffian ducts into the male reproductive tract (epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and seminal vesicles)
male reproductive tract epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and seminal vesicles
female reproductive tract oviducts, uterus, and vagina
external reproductive structures requre dihydtrotestosterone or DHT
genitalia are mostly formed after how many weeks 16
differentiation of the male and female brain also depends on the presence or absence of what testosterone
differences in male and female brain size of hypothalamic nuclei, cyclic release of gonadotropin, and sexual behavior
how long does puberty last 3-5 years
menstruation started in 1840 at what age 17
sebaceous glands stimulated to secreted oil (acne) during puberty
progesterone female hormone related to menstruation period
precocious puberty early puberty; early development of secondary sex characteristics; caused by abnormal exposure of immature females to estrogen or males to androgens; often caused by tumors of the gonads or adrenal glands
delayed puberty menarche has failed to occur by age 17, testes failed to develop by age 20
spermatogenesis works best in what temp colder
testes are divided into testicular lobules (250 compartments)
Each lobule in the teste contains a coiled seminiferous tubule and interstitial cells (Leydig cells)
function of seminiferous tubules produce sperm; they also contain Sertoli cells which play a role in nurturing the sperm cells
function of Leydig cells produce testosterone; are located outside of the seminiferous tubules
epididymis small coiled tube which measures about 20 feet, lies along the top and side of the testes; site of maturation of sperm
capacitation sperm's capacity to fertilize is enhanced by exposure to secretions of the female reproductive tract; the ductus epididymis also secretes "sperm forward-mobility protein," which causes a movement pattern of the sperm
vas deferens (ductus deferens) tubes that carry sperm from the epididmis up into the abdominal cavity to the ejaculatory duct near the bladder; at the end of the vas deferens is an expanded region called the "ampulla" which serves as a reservoir for sperm
vasectomy a small incision is made in the scrotum, the vas deferens is tied in two places and the segments between the ties are removed
Ejaculatory ducts carry sperm from vas deferens to urethra
urethra tube extending from the urinary bladder through the flor of the pelvic cavity and then through the penis; carries urine from bladder and sperm from ejaculatory duct
male sex accessory organs seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands; these glands secrete seminal plasma which mixes with the sperm to form semen or seminal fluid
seminal vesicles secrete seminal plasma (more than half of total semen volume); fluid contains fructose to give energy to sperm; fluid also contains prostaglandins which stimulate contraction of the male and female reproductive tracts which helps in sperm transport
prostate gland lies below the bladder and is doughnut shaped; urethra pases through the small hole in the center; secretes alkaline fluid (13-33% of volume) that helps protect the sperm from the acidic environment of the male urethra and female vagina
bulbourethral glands secrete alkaline fluid, which acts as a lubricant
male fertility depends on quantity and quality of sperm; 2-6 ml, 20 million sperm/ml, 60% normal shape
number of sperm produced daily 200 million/day
sperm live how long 3-4 days
sperm count per ejaculation 40 million to 250 million; below 20 million may mean infertility problems
how many sperm enter fallopian tube 100-100,000
how many sperm make it to the egg few hundred
zygote fertilized egg
what happens to dead sperm in female phagocytized by leukocytes
infertility is due to whom 50% man 50% woman
structure of sperm head (contains nucleus with 23 chromosomes), acrosome (enzyme filled vesicle), tail (for movement), midpiece (contains a large number of mitochondria)
uterus pear shaped organ situated in the pelvic cavity above the urinary bladder and in front of rectum- 3 inches long, 2 wide, 1 thick; larger in multiparous women
two main regions of the uterus corpus or body, uterine isthmus or cervix (neck)
two main components of the wall endometrium (shed during menstruation) and myometrium (smooth muscle, contraction of the uterine wall results in expulsion of the fetus at birth
fallopian tubes, oviducts, or uterine tubes serve as ducts for ovaries (diameter of drinking straw); fertilization usually takes place there)
ovaries among the most vascular organs of the body
ovarian follicles female germ cells or oocytes are enclosed inside the ovary in tissue sacs called ovarian follicles
how many follicles do newborn girls have 500,000
how many follicles are released through ovulation 400
ovulation production of mature egg;when there is estrogen present, the immature oocyte will go from a primary, to secondary, to tertiary follicle. the large follicle that develops during the cycle is called a graafian follicle. It is this follicle that breaks ope
secretion production of female hormones
Estrogen estradiol, estrone, and estriol; estradiol is the principle estrogen; produced by follicle, corpus luteum, and plaenta, stimulates development of secondary sex structures, promote myometrial contractions, inhibit FSH secretion
progesterone produced by corpus luteum and placenta; stimulate development of secondary sex structures; inhibits contraction of uterine muscle
average human menstrual cycle length 29.5 days
day 1 of ovarian cycle menstruation starts, estrogen and progesterone levels are low, FSH stimulates the development of the follicle (the egg inside the follicle), several follicles start to develop-follicle secrete estrogen
day 7 of ovarian cycle usually only one follicle continues to develop and secrete estrogens; others degenerate; estrogen elvels increase as the folicle grows into a graafian follicle;several days before ovulation, more LH are releases from anterior pituitary
day 14 of ovarian cycle high levels of LH stimulate ovulation; LH surge occurs 16 hours before ovulation; expulsion of egg from the mature follicle--ovaries usually alternate
indications of ovulation rise in basal body temperature due to progesterone; slight pain over ovary; vaginal secretory pattern
fertile period length 4-6 days
destiny of follicle cell after ovulation LH stimulates the transformation of follicle cell into a corpus luteum (yellow body)
cells of corpus luteum secrete estrogens and progesterone
day 23 of ovarian cycle if pregnancy occurs the corpus persists; Human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) maintains the corpus luteum during pregnancy, which in turn maintains the levels of estrogen and progesterone
HCG human chorionic gonadotrophin; is detectable in the blood and urine as early as 8-10 days after fertilization so it's used in pregnancy kits; similar to GH and prolactin; has anti-insulin effects to divert glucose from mother to fetus
day 23 of ovarian cycle if no pregnancy corpus luteum begins to degenerate on about day 23 or 24; with degeneration of the corpus luteum, the levels of estrogens and progesterone drop
day 27 of ovarian cycle (no pregnancy) low levels of estrogen and progesterone cause ischemia in the endometrium, which initiates the beginning of the next cycle in one to two days
menstrual cycle names day 1-5 menstrual phase; 6-14 postmenstrual, preovulatory, or follicular phase; day 14 ovulation; day 14-27 premenstrual, postovulatory, or luteal phase; day 27-28 ischemic phase
implantation takes place how many days after fertilization 6-7 days
intrauterin implantation usually implants in the upper posterior wall of uterus; cervical implantation
extrauterine implantation rare; called ectopic pregnancy (anywhere outside the uterus); tubal, abdominal, ovarian
pregancy lasts how long 38 weeks (9.5 months)
pre-embryo first 2 weeks after conception
embryo 3-8 weeks after fertilization; most critical period for damage to occur to baby
how much weight should a pregnant mother gain 25 pounds
during pregnancy, which hormones increase estrogens, progesterone, HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin which peaks at 2nd month), Glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands, T3 and T4 from thryoid, parathyroid hormone
change in pituitary during pregnancy increases in size and activity
change in blood volume and cardiac output during pregnancy increase
parturition act of giving birth
factors that increase contractibility of the uterus increased estrogen levels, secretion of oxytocin from posterior pituitary, formation of prostaglandins in the uterus
labor is divided into three stages 1)cervical dilation-up to 10 cm 2)delivery of the baby 3)delivery of the placenta (afterbirth)
when does menopause start 52
menopause (what happens) follicle does not develop and therefore LH and FSH remain high and estrogens and progesterone remain low
treatment for menopause estrogen replacement therapy using premarin; there's recent evidence that ERT might not be so good
benefits of ERT relieves hot flashes, insomnia, vaginal dryness, mood swings, and heart disease
risks of ERT increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, weight gain, and gall bladder disease
tubal ligation tying off both uterine tubes and thus preventing the transport of sperm or egg through the tubes
Created by: droid on 2008-04-21



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