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Stack #1307696

A&P Chapter 1

anatomy the science of body structures and the relationship among them
dissection the careful cutting apart of body structures to study their relationship
physiology the science of body functions-how the body works
levels of body organization chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, and organismal
Embryology The first eight weeks of development after fertilization of a human egg.
Developmental biology The complete development of an individual from fertilization to death.
Cell biology Cellular structure and functions.
Histology Microscopic structure of tissues.
Gross anatomy Structures that can be examined without a microscope.
Systemic anatomy Structure of specific systems of the body such as the nervous or respiratory.
Regional anatomy Specific regions of the body such the head or chest.
Surface anatomy Surface markings of the body to understand internal anatomy through visualization and palpation.
Radiographic anatomy Body structures that can be visualized with x-rays.
Pathological anatomy Structural changes(gross to microscopic) associated with disease.
Neurophysiology Functional properties of nerve cells.
Endocrinology Hormones(chemical regulators in the blood) and how they control body function.
Cardiovascular physiology Functions of the heart and blood vessels.
Immunology The body's defenses against disease-causing agents.
Respiratory physiology Functions of the air passageways and lungs.
Renal physiology Functions of the kidneys.
Exercise physiology Changes in cell and organ functions due to muscular activity.
Pathophysiology Functional changes associated with disease and aging.
chemical level basic level, includes atoms and molecules
atoms smallest units of matter that participate in chemical reactions(such as carbon and or hydrogen)
molecules two of more atoms joined together
DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
cellular level the basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals
tissue level groups of cells and materials surrounding them that work together to preform a particular function
tissue types epithelial, connective, muscular, nervous
epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs and cavities, and forms glands
connective tissue connects, supports, and protects body organs while distributing blood vessels to other tissue
muscular tissue contracts to make body parts move and generates heat
nervous tissue carriers information from one part of the body to another through nerve impulses
organ level structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissue; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes
system level related organ with a common function
organismal level any living individual
Integumentary system skin, and associated structures, such as hair, fingernails and toenails, sweat glands, and oil glands
Skeletal system bones, joints, and cartilages
Muscular system muscle tissue usually attached to bone
Nervous system brain, spinal cord, nerves, and special sense organs
Endocrine system pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thymus, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pancreas, ovaries, and testes
Cardiovascular system blood, heart, and blood vessels
Lymphatic system spleen, thymus, lymph, nodes, and tonsils
Respiratory system lungs and air passageways such as the pharynx, larynx, trachea, and bronchial tubes
Digestive system mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, anus, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas
Urinary system kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra
Reproductive system gonads(testes and ovaries), uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, mammary glands, epididymides, ductus deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, and penis
palpation to examine by touch; to feel
auscultation examine by listening to sounds in the body
percussion examination where taps on the body surface with fingertips result in an echo
Basic life processes metabolism, responsiveness, movement, growth, differentiation, and reproduction
metabolism all of the chemical processes that occur in the body
catabolism the breakdown of complex chemical substances into smaller components
anabolism the building up complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler components
responsiveness the body's ability to detect and respond to changes
movement motion of the whole body, individual organs, single cells, and even structures inside cells
growth an increase in body size that results from an increase in the size of existing cells, an increase in the number of cells, or both
differentiation development of a cell from an unspecialized to a specialized one
stem cell an unspecialized cell that has the ability to divide for indefinite periods and give rise to a specialized cell
reproduction the formation of new cells for tissue growth, repair, replacement, or a new individual
autopsy the postmortem(after death) examination of the body and dissection of it's internal organs to confirm or determine the cause of death
homeostasis the condition in which the body's internal environment remains relatively constant within physiological limits
intracellular fluid (ICF) the fluid within the cells
extracellular fluid (ECF) fluid outside body cells
interstitial fluid the extracellular fluid the fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissue
feedback system a cycle of events in which the status of a body condition is monitored, evaluated, changed, re-monitored, and reevaluated
stimulus any stress that changes a controlled condition
receptor a body structure that monitors changes in a controlled condition and sends input to a control center
control center the part of the body that sets the range of values within which a controlled condition should be maintained
effector a body structure that receives output from the control center and produces a response that changes the controlled condition
negative feedback system reverses a change in a controlled condition
positive feedback system strengthens or reinforces a change in one of the body's controlled conditions
disorder any abnormality of structure or function
disease an illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms
symptoms subjective changes in body function that are not apparent to an observer
signs objective changes that can be observed and measured
epidemiology the study of occurrence and transmission of diseases and disorders
Pharmacology the science of the effects and uses of drugs in the treatment of disease
diagnosis the science and skill of distinguishing one disorder or disease from another
anatomical position the body is erect, head is level, the eyes face forward, the upper limbs are at the sides, the palms face forward, and the feet are flat on the floor
prone the body is lying face down
supine the body is lying face up
head skull and face
face front portion of the head, eyes, nose, mouth, forehead, cheeks, and chin
neck supports the head and attaches it to the trunk
trunk chest, abdomen, and pelvis
upper limb shoulder, armpit, arm, forearm, wrist, and hand
lower limb buttock, thigh, leg, ankle, and foot
groin the area on the front surface of the body marked by a crease on each side, where the trunk attaches to the thighs
superior towards the head, towards the upper part of the body
inferior away from the head, towards the lower part of the body
anterior nearer to or at the front of the body
posterior nearer to or at the back of the body
medial nearer to the midline
lateral farther from the midline
intermediate between two structures
ipsilateral on the same side of the body as another structure
contralateral on the opposite side of the body from another structure
proximal nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk; nearer to the origination of a structure
distal farther from the attachment of a limb to the trunk; farther from the origination of a structure
superficial towards or on the surface of the body
deep away from the surface of the body
midline an imaginary vertical line that divides the body into equal right and left sides
sagittal plane a vertical plane that divides the body or organ into right and left sides
midsagittal plane a vertical plane through the midline of the body that divides the body or organs into equal right and left sides
median plane a vertical plane dividing the body into right and left halves, situated in the middle
parasagittal plane a vertical plane that does not pass through the midline and that divides the body or organs in unequal left and right portions
frontal plane (coronal plane) a plane at a right angle to the midsagittal plane that divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior portions
transverse plane (cross-sectional or horizontal plane) divides the body or organ into superior and inferior portions
oblique plane passes through the body or organ at an angle
cranial cavity brain
vertebral cavity spinal cord
meninges three membranes covering the brain and spinal cord
thoracic cavity pericardial cavity and pleural cavities
pericardial cavity fluid filled space around the heart
pleural cavities lungs
mediastinum heart, esophagus, trachea, thymus, and several large blood vessels
diaphragm dome-shaped muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominopelvic cavity
abdominopelvic cavity abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
abdominal cavity stomach, spleen, liver, gallbladder, small intestines, and most of the large intestines
pelvic cavity urinary bladder, portions of the large intestines, and internal organs of the reproductive system
viscera the organs inside of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
membrane a thin, pliable tissue that covers, lines, partitions, or connects structures
serous membrane a double-layered membrane which covers the viscera within the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities and lines the walls of the thorax and abdomen
parietal layer thin epithelium that lines the walls of the cavities
visceral layer thin epithelium that covers and adheres to the viscera within the cavities
pleura the serous membrane that covers the lungs and lines the walls of the chest and the diaphragm
parietal pleura the outer layer of the serous membrane that encloses and protects the lungs; the layer that is attached to the wall of the pleural cavity
pericardium serous membrane of the pericardial cavity
peritoneum serous membrane of the abdominal cavity
visceral pericardium serous membrane that covers the surface of the heart
parietal pericardium serous membrane that lines the chest wall
visceral peritoneum covers the abdominal viscera
parietal peritoneum serous membrane that lines the abdominal wall
retroperitoneal organs kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum of the small intestines, ascending and descending colons of the large intestine, and portions of the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava
right hypochondriac x-- --- ---
epigastric -x- --- ---
left hypochondriac --x --- ---
right lumbar x-- --- ---
umbilical --- -x- ---
left lumbar --- --x ---
right inguinal --- --- x--
hypogastric --- --- -x-
left inguinal --- --- --x
right upper quadrant (RUQ) x- --
left upper quadrant (LUQ) -x --
right lower quadrant (RLQ) -- x-
left lower quadrant (LLQ) -- -x
Created by: Frannkie