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World Geo

Chapter 1 Vocabulary

TermDefinition
1. Geography The study of the earths surface and the processes that shape it, the connections between places, and the complex relationships between people and their environment
2. GIS A geographic information system, which uses computer technology to collect and analyze data about the earths surface in order to solve geographic problems
3. Absolute Location the position on the earth in which a place can be found
4. Hemispheres A half of the earth; the equator divides the northern and Southern Hemispheres; the prime meridian divides the eastern and western hemispheres
5. Relative Location The position of a place in relation to another place
6. Character of a place The physical and human characteristics that help distinguish a place from other places
7. Perception viewpoint that is influenced by ones own culture and experiences
8. Formal Regions A group of places that have similar attributes, for example a political region
9. Functional Regions A group of places connected by movement, for example, the region drained by the Amazon River and its tributaries
10. Perceptual Regions A group of places that is defined by people's feelings and attitudes
11. Core the earths center, consisting of very hot metal that is dense and solid in the inner core and molten, or liquid, in the outer core
12. mantle a thick layer of mostly solid rock beneath the earths crust that surrounds the earths core
13. crust the solid, rocky, surface layer of the earth
14. lithosphere the surface features of the earth, including rocks, soil, and landforms
15. atmosphere the layer of gasses, water vapor, and other substances above the earth
16. hydrosphere the water contained in oceans, lakes, rivers, and under the ground
17. biosphere the world of plants, animals, and other living things in earths land and waters
18. Continents any of the seven large landmasses of the earths surface: Africa, Antarctica, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, South America
19. relief the differences in elevation, or height, of the landforms in any particular area
20. plate tectonics the theory that the earths outer shell is composed of a number of large, unanchored plates, or slabs of rock, whose constant movement explains earthquakes and volcanic activity
21. Continental Drift Theory The idea that continents slowly shift their positions due to movement of the tectonic plates at which they ride
22. Ring of Fire A ring of volcanic mountain surrounding the Pacific Ocean
23. Weathering the chemical or mechanical process by which rock is gradually broken down, eventually becoming soil
24. Mechanical Weathering the actual breaking up or physical weakening of rock by forces such as ice and roots
25. Chemical Weathering the process by which the actual chemical structure of rock is changed, usually when water and carbon dioxide cause a breakdown of the rock
26. Acid Rain rain whose high concentration of chemicals, usually from industrial pollution, pollutes water, kills plant and animal life, and eats away at the surface of stone and rock; a form of chemical weathering
27. Erosion the movement of weathered materials, including gravel, soil, and sand, usually caused by water, wind, and glaciers
28. Sediment particles of soil and rock carried and deposited by water, wind, or ice
29. Loess fine grained, mineral rich loam, dust, or silt deposited by the wind
30. Glacier a huge, slow moving mass of snow and ice
31. Moraines a ridge like mass of rock, gravel, sand, and clay carried and deposited by a glacier
Created by: lindsaylummus