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I&HC Unit 1 Terms

Infection & Hazard Control Unit 1 Terms

ADA Americans with Disabilities Act.
Aerobes These are organisms whose growth requires the presence of oxygen in order to live.
Aerosols Nebulized particles from potentially infectious materials that would be released through the air.
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome that is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus. The virus destroys the immune system and the body's ability to fight infections is destroyed.
Alcohol-Based Hand Rub An alcohol-containing preparation designed for reducing the number of viable microorganisms on the hands.
Algae A large group of nonmotile and motile plants without roots, stems, or leaves belonging to the lowest division of the plant kingdom. Algae contain chlorophyll and live in fresh or salt water or in moist places.
Allergy A hypersensitivity reaction of the body to an allergen.
Anaerobes Organism that grows and lives in the complete or almost complete absence of oxygen.
Antimicrobial Soap A detergent containing an antiseptic agent.
Antibiotic Resistant Organisms Organisms that exhibit a resistance to one or more of the antibiotics used to treat a disease/illness.
Antibody Substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates certain foreign substances that gain access to the body.
Antigen A substance that induces the formation of antibodies.
Aseptic or Asepsis Free of viable pathogenic microorganisms.
Assistant Secretary Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, or designated representative.
Autoclave Equipment used for sterilization by steam under pressure.
Autogenous Infection Infection originating from within one's own body. This term is also interchangable with the term endogenous, therefore, the definition for that term also is correct. See that definition.
Autoimmunity An abnormal condition in which the body reacts against its own tissues. May result in hypersensitivity and autoimmune diseases.
Assistant Secretary Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health, or designated representative.
Bacilli Any rod-shaped bacteria.
Bacteria Small unicellular microorganisms.
Bacteremia The presence of bacteria in the bloodstream.
Bactericide Agent lethal to bacteria but not necessarily their spores.
Bacteriology The study of bacteria.
Bio Life
Bioaerosolization The airborne transfer of microorganisms through nebulized particles/droplets or spray/mist, etc.
Bioburden/Bioload Microbiological load or organic debris/material on a surface or object before decontamination or sterilization. It may be either transparent or translucent. The debris may dry as a clear film on skin, clothing, and other surfaces.
Biochemistry The chemistry of life forms.
Biofilm Is a community of bacterial cells and other microbes that adhere to surfaces and form a protective slime layer. Biofilm is found anywhere moisture meets a suitable solid surface, such as tubing used in dental units. This layer can contain many types of ba
Biohazard Material (such as: chemicals, blood or infectious body fluids) that pose a significant risk to humans/living organisms.
Biohazard Waste Waste posing a risk of peril to humans or the environment. Biohazard Waste is also interchangable with the term Hazardous Waste, therefore, the definitions can also be the same. (See that definition)
Blood Human blood, human blood components, and products that are made from human blood. Blood is a liquid that is composed of plasma and other formed elements. Blood is responsible for transporting oxygen and nutrients to the cells and to remove waste products
Bloodborne Pathogens Microorganisms that are present in human blood and can cause disease in humans. These pathogens include, but are not limited to, Hepatitis B & C virus and human immunodeficiency virus.
Capsule A sticky mucoid coating surrounding the cell wall of some microorganisms.
Carrier Person or animal in apparent good health who harbors and spreads an organism that is pathogenic and can cause disease in others. The carrier may or may not know they are capable of spreading the disease to others.
Causative Agent A biological, physical, or chemical entity capable of causing disease.
Cell Cells are the unit of all living tissue and the physical basis of all life processes. Cells and the products of cells comprise all of the tissues of the body.
CDC Centers For Disease Control And Prevention.
Chlamydiae Considered bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites with features similar to viruses and features of true bacteria. Chamydiae are viewed as gram negative bacteria that lack mechanisms for the production of metabolic energy.
Clinical Laboratory A work-place where diagnostic or other screening procedures are performed on blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Cocci Bacterial cells that are round in shape.
Colony-Forming Units (CFU) The minimum number (i.e. tens of millions) of separable cells on the surface of, or in, semi-solid agar medium that give rise to a visible colony of progeny. CFU's can consist of pairs, chains, clusters, or as single cells and are often expressed as colon
Communicable Capable of being transmitted from one person to another.
Concentration (Bacterial) Refers to the number of pathogens that are present (quantity).
Contagion Period The period of time that a disease remains contagious. During this time a disease can be transferred to others through direct or indirect contact..
Contagious Highly Communicable: A disease easily spread through direct or indirect contact..
Contaminated (Contamination) Soiling with infectious material. The presence or the reasonably anticipated presence of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item or surface.
Contaminated Laundry Laundry/linen/clothing which has been soiled with blood or other potentially infectious materials.
Contaminated Sharps Any contaminated object that can penetrate the skin including, but not limited to, needles, scalpels, broken glass, broken capillary tubes, staples, and exposed ends of dental wires or surgical wires.
Contaminated Waste Items that have had contact with blood or other body secretions/fluid (e.g. used surface barriers or patient bibs).
Cross-Contamination Touching clean surfaces/items/objects/instruments with dirty/soiled or contaminated materials. This may then result in infections being spread from one person to another or from contaminated objects, items, instruments, etc. to others.
Culture Growth of microorganisms on nutrient medium.
Decontamination The use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy bloodborne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting infectious particles and the surface or item is rendered safe for handling, use
Desensitization To render an individual insensitive to any of the various antigens.
Dental Treatment Water Non-sterile water used during dental treatment, including irrigation of non-surgical operative sites and cooling of high-speed rotary and ultrasonic instruments.
Direct Transmission Disease that require direct contact with another person; sexual contact; direct contact with lesions/blood/salvia/body fluids, in order for transmission to take place.
Director Director of the National Institute For Occupational Safety And Health, U.S. Department Of Health And Human Services, or designated representative.
Disease A pathological condition of the body that presents a group of symptoms and is considered abnormal. Any alteration of the normal function, structure, part, or system of an organism.
Disease Transmission The method or means by which diseases are spread or transferred from a reservoir to a susceptible host.
Disinfectant A chemical agent used to kill/destroy or eliminate most microorganisms on inanimate objects, with the exception of bacterial spores.
Disinfection Destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means (or elimination of many disease producing organisms/pathogens). Disinfection is less lethal than sterilization, because it destroys the majority of recognized pathog
Droplets/Droplet Infection Small particles of moisture (e.g. spatter) generated when a person coughs or sneezes, or when water is converted to a fine mist by an aerator, shower head, and spray from equipment such as dental handpieces and air/water syringes. These particles, interme
Droplet Nuclei Particles < 5um in diameter formed by dehydration of airborne droplets containing microorganisms that can remain suspended in the air for long periods of time.Endemic: Usual, normal, or expected rate of occurrence during outbreaks of infectious diseases.
Endogenous Infection Infection originating from microorganism present within the body, such as a previously dormant organism that becomes active resulting in disease or infection. This term is interchangable with the term autogenous, therefore they both have the same meaning.
Endotoxin The lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria, the toxic character of which resides in the lipid protein. Endotoxins can produce pyrogenic reactions in persons exposed to their bacterial component.
Engineering Controls Controls (such as: sharps disposal containers; self sheathing needles; sharps with engineered sharps injury protections; needleless systems) that isolate or remove the bloodborne pathogens hazard from the work-place.
Enterococcal Infection Gram positive bacteria belonging to the family Streptococcus, many of which inhabit the human intestinal tract.
Environmental Infection Control Specific Infection Control procedures involving (a) housekeeping surfaces (e.g. sinks, floors, walls) and (b) clinical contact surfaces (dental unit switches, light handles, drawers, etc.).
Environmental Surfaces Surfaces or equipment that does not contact patients directly but can become contaminated during patient care (e.g. touch/transfer surfaces, spray, splash, spatter or droplet surfaces).
EPA Environmental Protection Agency.
Epidemic Outbreaks of an infectious disease is excessive of the usual, normal, or expected rate and spreads rapidly among a large number of people or geographic area.
Epidemiology The science that studies disease and its determinants among people/the population.
Etiology The study of the factors that cause disease and the method of transmission to the host/person.
Exogenous Infection Infection originating from microorganisms from sources outside the body.
Exposure Control Plan A written plan designated to eliminate or minimize employee exposure.
Exposure Incident A specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non-intact skin, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that results from the performance of an employee's duties.
Facultative Anaerobes Microorganisms that can grow in either the presence (aerobic) or the absence (anaerobic) of oxygen.
Febrile Illness Any illness with a fever.
FDA Food and Drug Administration.
Fomite Any object/item/material (non-living) that may harbor and transmit microorganisms.
Fungi A cellular organism that subsists on organic matter. Many forms are pathogenic to plants and animals. Includes: mold, yeast, and mushrooms.
Fungicide Agent that kills fungi and their spores.
Germicides An agent that destroys microorganisms, especially pathogenic organisms. Terms with the same suffix (e.g. virucide, fungicide, bactericide, tuberculocide, and sporicide) indicate agents that destroy the specific microorganism identified by the prefix. It c
Gram (-) Bacteria Any bacteria that stains pink/red when using the Gram staining technique.
Gram (+) Bacteria Any bacteria that stains purple/blue when using the Gram staining technique.
Hand Hygiene General term that applies to handwashing (water and non-antimicrobial soap), antiseptic handwash (water and antimicrobial soap), antiseptic hand rub (alcohol-based hand rub), or surgical hand antisepsis (water and antimicrobial soap followed by an alcohol
Hazardous Waste Waste posing a risk of peril to humans or the environment. Hazardous waste comprises discarded chemicals or items that pose a risk of peril to humans or the environment because the waste materials are either flammable, toxic, corrosive, or reactive to air
Health-Care-Associated Infection Any infection associated with a medical or surgical intervention. The term replaces nosocomial infection (which is limited to adverse infectious outcomes occurring in hospitals.
Hepatitis B e Antigen (HBeAg) Serologic marker on the surface of HBV detected in high levels during acute or chronic hepatitis. Its presence indicates that the virus is replicating and serves as a marker of increased infectivity.
Hepatitis B Immune Globulin (HBIG) Product used for prophylaxis against HBV infection. HBIG provides protection for 3-6 months.
Hepatitis B Surface Antibody (Anti-Hbs) Protective antibody against HBsAg. Presence in teh blood can indicate past infection with, and immunity to, HBV, or immune response from hepatitis B vaccine.
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen (HBsAg) Serologic marker detected in high levels during acute or chronic hepatitis. The body normally produces antibodies to surface antigen as a normal immune response to infection.
Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Virus that causes Hepatitis B.
Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Virus that causes Hepatitis C.
Heterotrophic Bacteria Those bacteria requiring an organic carbon source for growth (e.g. deriving energy and carbon from organic compounds).
High-Level Disinfection Disinfection process that inactivates vegetative bacteria, mycobacteria, fungi, and viruses but not necessarily high numbers of bacterial spores. The FDA further defines a high-level disinfectant as a sterilant.
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus. This retrovirus attacks the body's immune system and leads to the development of AIDS.
Hospital Disinfectant Germicide registered by EPA for use on inanimate objects in hospitals, clinics, dental offices, and other medical-related facilities. Efficacy is demonstrated against Salmonella choleraesuis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Host The organism from which a parasite obtains its' nourishment.
Hypersensitivity An abnormal condition in which responses to stimuli are exaggerated.
Iatrogenic Induced inadvertently by Health Care Provider, medical and dental treatment, or through diagnostic procedures. Used particularly in reference to an infectious disease or other complication of treatment.
Immunity The natural or acquired resistance to a disease.
Immunization Process by which a person becomes immune, or protected against a disease. Vaccination is defined as the process of administering a killed or weakened infectious organism or a toxoid; however, vaccination does not always result in immunity.
Immunology The science that studies immunity/immune system.
Immunosuppressed An abnormal condition of the immune system characterized by markedly inhibited ability to respond to antigenic stimuli. May be the result of disease or immunosuppressive agents.
Implantable Device Device placed into a surgically or naturally formed cavity of the human body and intended to remain there for > 30 days.
Independent Water Reservoir Container used to hold water or other solutions and supply it to handpieces and air/water syringes attached to a dental unit. The independent reservoir, which isolates the unit from the public water system, can be provided as original equipment or as a re
Indirect Transmission Diseases are transmitted by indirect contact with objects, surfaces, equipment, instruments, etc. that have been contaminated.
Infection The invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms with their subsequent multiplication resulting in disease.
Infection Control Controlling microbial contamination and the spread of disease/infection.
Infectious Waste Waste capable of causing an infectious disease.
Intermediate Host Other organisms that serve as a host to the microorganism for various developmental stages.
Intermediate-level Disinfectant Liquid chemical germicide registered with EPA as a hospital disinfectant and with a label claim of potency as tuberculocidal.
Intermediate-Level Disinfection Disinfection process that inactivates vegetative bacteria, the majority of fungi, mycobacteria, and the majority of viruses (particularly enveloped viruses) but not bacterial spores.
Latex Milky white fluid extracted from the rubber tree and proceed into rubber products (e.g. latex gloves).
Low-Level Disinfectant Liquid chemical germicide registered with EPA as a hospital disinfectant. OSHA requires low-level hospital disinfectants also to have a label claim for potency against HIV and HBV if used for disinfecting clinical contact surfaces.
Low-Level Disinfection Disinfection process that inactivates vegetative bacteria, the majority of fungi, mycobacteria, and the majority of viruses (particularly enveloped viruses) but not bacterial spores.
Medical Asepsis Practices that kill or reduce the number of microorganisms and/or prevent or reduce transmission from one person to another. Also referred to as "clean technique". Examples: handwashing, use of barriers, environmental controls such as cleaning and disinfe
Medical Waste Any solid waste generated in the diagnosis, treatment, or immunization of humans or animals. Does not include hazardous or household waste.
Microbiology This is the branch of science/biology that studies microorganisms that include bacteria; viruses; fungi; algae; protozoans; and rickettsia.
Microorganism Living organisms of microscopic size.
Molds Multicellular fungi.
Morphology The study of form & structure of organisms.
Multicellular Composed of more than one cell.
Mutation Capable of changing the genetic pattern in order to survive current conditions and to resist efforts to be killed or destroyed.
Mycology The study of Fungi. (Mycosis: Any fungal infection)
Mycoplasma Are bacteria that belong in the class known as Mollicutes. They lack a rigid cell wall and are the smallest free-living organisms found in nature. Only two genera are pathogenic to humans ( Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Ureaplasma) and cause respiratory and g
Nebulize To vaporize or disperse a liquid in a fine spray. The device used to disperse the spray is known as a nebulizer.
Neeleless Systems A device that does not use needles for: (A) the collection of bodily fluids or withdrawal of body fluids after initial venous or arterial access is established: (B) the administration of medication or fluids; or (C) any other procedure involving the poten
NCDEHNR North Carolina Department Of Environment, Health and Natural Resources.
NIOSH National Institute Occupational Safety And Health
Non-Pathogenic microorganisms that are harmless and not capable of producing disease.
Normal Flora Microorganisms that normally live on or within the body.
Nosocomial Infection Hospital acquired infections. The infections are acquired in a hospital as a result of medical care.
Occupational Exposure Reasonably anticipated skin, eye, mucous membrane, or parenteral contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials that may result from the performance of an employee's duties. (Student Duties).
OPIM Other potentially infectious materials. This is an OSHA term that refers to: 1) body fluids including semen, vaginal secretions, cerebrospinal fluid, synovial fluid, pleural fluid, pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid, amniotic fluid, saliva in dental proc
Opportunistic Pathogens Microorganisms which are normally not harmful but can become pathogenic if the body's defenses are reduced.
OSHA Occupational Safety Health Administration.
Pandemic The rate of an outbreak of an infectious disease is widespread over a large geographical area, such as a country or the world.
Parenteral Means of piercing mucous membranes or skin barrier (through the skin), such as piercing/puncturing the skin barrier through events as needle- sticks, bites, cuts, abrasions, or any break that may occur to the skin or mucous membranes.
Pathogenic Waste Teeth and other human tissues are regulated waste.
Pathogens Disease producing microorganisms.
Persistent Activity Prolonged or extended activity that prevents or inhibits proliferation or survival of microorganisms after application of a product. Sometimes termed residual activity.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Is specialized clothing or equipment worn by an employee/student for protection against a hazard. General work clothes (such as: uniforms pants, shirts, blouses) not intended to function as protection against a hazard are not considered to be person
Phagocytes A cell that is capable of surrounding, engulfing, and digesting (eating)/destroying microorganisms and cellular debris.
Phlebotomy The process of withdrawing blood from a vein.
Prion Protein particle lacking nucleic acid that has been implicated as the cause of certain neurodegenerative diseases (e.g. scrapie, CJD, and bovine spongiform encephalopathy).
Protozoa Unicellular microorganisms that are the lowest of the animal life. Example: the Amoeba.
Protozoology The study of Protozoa.
Quality Assurance Also known as quality management. These are methods used to ensure reliable and accurate data. The review process evaluates the quality and effectiveness of care in relation to accepted standards. In the laboratory setting, quality assurance plays a major
Quality Control Measures used to monitor and ensure precision, accuracy, and processing of items such as laboratory specimens. In the laboratory this includes proper use, storage, handling, stability, expiration dates, etc.
Reasonably Anticipated An assumption that an act, such as an exposure incident, could be foreseen by the reasonable, trained adult.
Regulated Waste Liquid or semi-liquid blood or other potentially infectious material; contaminated items that would release blood or other potentially infectious materials in a liquid or semi-liquid state if compressed; items that are caked with dried blood or other pote
Reservoir Is a place where infectious agents can survive.
Resistant Ability to withstand unfavorable conditions, ability to withstand destruction.
Retraction Entry of oral fluids and microorganisms into waterlines through negative water pressure.
Rhinovirus Any of the 100 small RNA viruses that cause about 40% of acute respiratory illnesses.
Rickettsia This is a group of microorganisms which combine aspects of both viruses and bacteria. They differ from bacteria in that they are obligate parasites requiring living cells for growth. They differ from viruses in that they are retained by the Berkeld filter
Safety Devices A non-needle sharp or a needle device used for withdrawing body fluids, accessing a vein or artery, or administering medications or other fluids, with a built-in safety feature or mechanism that effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident.
Sanitize Simply reduces the number of bacteria to a safer level. Sanitizing does not disinfect, it only involves the physical cleaning and scrubbing of items to remove contaminated debris, tissue, or other forms of contaminants from equipment, instruments, fomites
Sepsis Contaminated. (Septic however, means an infection with pyogenic microorganisms.
Seroconversion The change of a serological test from negative to positive indicating the development of antibodies in response to infection or immunization.
Sharps With Engineered Sharps Injury Protections A non-needle sharp or a needle device used for withdrawing body fluids, accessing a vein or artery, or administering medications or other fluids, with a built-in safety feature or mechanism that effectively reduces the risk of an exposure incident.
Source Individual Any individual, living or dead, whose blood or other potentially infectious materials may be a source of occupational exposure to the employee/student.
SPICE (North Carolina) Statewide Program for Infection Control and Epidemiology.
Spirilla Spiral-shaped motile microorganisms.
Spirochetes Slender, spiral organisms. One disease caused by the Spirochete is Syphilis.
Spores The form taken by bacteria to enable them to become resistant and withstand unfavorable conditions such as heat, drying, cold, and many chemical compounds. Endospore means the spore is located within the cell structure.
Standard Precautions Precautions that the CDC developed in 1996 that augment OSHA's Universal Precautions and the body substance isolation practices. Standard Precautions are designed to protect all health care providers, patients, and visitors. This concept treats all body f
Sterile Free from all living microorganisms and their products. Sterilization is the destruction of all microorganisms.
Sterilization The use of a physical or chemical procedure to completely eliminate or destroy all forms of microbial life/microorganisms including resistant bacterial spores/endospores.
Surfactants Surface-active agents that reduce surface tension and help cleaning by loosening, emulsifying, and holding soil in suspension, to be more readily rinsed away.
Surgical Asepsis Practices designed to render and maintain objects and areas as maximally free from microorganisms as possible. Also referred to as "sterile technique". All microbial life are destroyed before an invasive procedure is performed such as surgery. The equipme
Susceptible Host Person or animal lacking effective resistance to a particular pathogenic agent.
Transmission-Based Precautions CDC's guidelines that apply to specific categories of patients with infectious disease that are transmitted by air, contact, and droplets. Transmission-based precautions are used in addition to standard precautions.
Tuberculocidal Chemical agent capable of destroying/killing the Mycobacterium tuberculosis organism.
Tuberculosis An bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Ultrasonic Cleaner Device that removes debris by a process called cavitation, in which waves of acoustic energy are propgated in aqueous solutions to disrupt the bonds that hold particulate matter to surfaces.
Unicellular Composed of only one cell.
Universal Precautions OSHA's term/concept meaning that all human blood and certain human body fluids are treated as if known to be infectious for HIV, HBV, HCV, or other bloodborne pathogens.
Vaccine A suspension of attenuated or killed microorganisms administered for the purpose of establishing resistance/immunity to an infectious disease.
Vector An animal, arthropod, or insect that can be a carrier and can transmit the causative agent of diseases. (Vectorborne: any disease transmitted by animals, arthropods, or insects such as dogs, mosquitoes, ticks, etc.)
Virology The study of viruses.
Virucide Chemical agent used in the destruction of a virus.
Virulence The ability to infect or produce disease (strength or power).
Virus The smallest microorganism that has been identified by the electron microscope. Viruses produce diseases such as : AIDS, Hepatitis, Colds, Flu, Mumps, Measles, and Chicken Pox.
Washer-Disinfector Automatic unit that cleans and thermally disinfects instruments, by using a high-temperature cycle rather than a chemical bath.
Wicking Absorption of a liquid by capillary action along a thread or through the material (e.g. penetration of liquids through undetected holes in a glove).
Work Practice Controls Controls or specific procedures and policies that employees/students follow to reduce their exposures to blood or other potentially infectious materials. (Such as: prohibiting recapping of needles by a two-handed technique).
Created by: zerruda