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M6 13-005

Exam 17: Cancer Medications

How is chemotherapy used? reduce the size or slow the growth of metastic cancer.
Action of Chemotherapy works by interfering with the cells’ replication process (ability to multiply or reproduce).
What happens to the cell with chemotherapy? The cell is damaged and causes cellular death
Which cells are affected with chemotherapy? Both malignant and normal cells are affected.
Three types of rapidly dividing human cells and are also affected with chemotherapy. Hematopoetic system. bone marrow cells. Hair follicles. GI system.
Cancer drugs are also known as what type of drugs? Antineoplastic
Drugs that are cytotoxic in any phase of cell cycle are called what? Cell cycle-nonspecific
Alkylating Agents interfere with DNA replication
Examples of Alkylating Agents are Cyclophosphamide, Cisplatin, and Carboplatin
Antitumor Antibiotics inhibit what? DNA and RNA synthesis
Examples of Antitumor Antibiotics are Bleomycin, Doxorubicin, and Mitoxantrone
Drugs that are cytotoxic during a specific cell cycle phase are called cell cycle-specific drugs
Antimetabolites do what to cells in what phase? the cell in the S phase
Examples of Antimetabolites are Cytarabine, Fluorouracil, and Methotrexate
Vinca Alkaloids are what? mitotic inhibitors and inhibit cell division during the M phase
Examples of Vinca Alkaloids Etoposide, Vinblastine, and Vincristine
Miscellaneous chemotherapy agents include hormonal drugs, radioactive drugs and other drugs that do not fit in other categories.
A newer class of chemotherapy drugs is known as Monoclonal antibodies
What is beneficial about Monoclonal Antibodies? . In cancer treatment they have advantages over traditional antineoplastics in that they can specifically target cancer cells and have minimal effect on healthy cells.
Chemotherapy Side effects: Hematopoietic System Patient must be monitored for bone marrow suppression.
Neutropenia is the loss of neutrophils
Normal Values for neutrophils 3000-7000/mm3
Neutropenia Value <1000/mm3
Severe Neutropenia Value <500/mm3
Without enough neutrophils, what happens to the body’s first line of defense collapses, opening the way for pneumonia, septicemia, or other potentially overwhelming infections.
Two mechanisms of Alopecia Hair roots atrophied-hair falls out often in large clumps. Hair shaft constricted-hair breaks off near the scalp for a patchy, thinning pattern of hair loss.
Chemotherapy Side effects: GI system Stomatitis. N/V/D.
What is extravastation? the unintended leakage of a chemotherapy drug into the surrounding tissues outside of the IV line.
What can extravastation cause? severe tissue damage and necrosis
Chemotherapy meds: Good to know! These drugs may cause reproductive suppression or sterility.
Narcotic opioids are classified as what? (pertaining to cancer) drugs most often used to control advanced cancer pain.
Created by: jtzuetrong