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Tectonics Assessment

TermDefinition
lithosphere the outermost part of the Earth including the crust and upper mantle
convergent two plates move towards each other, continental vs continental plates produce Fold Mountains eg. the Himalayas. Where oceanic vs continental plates, Subduction Zones are formed
divergent two plates move away from each other, continental vs continental plates produce Rift Valleys eg. East African Rift Valley. Where oceanic vs oceanic plates Oceanic Ridges form eg. Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
subduction oceanic vs continental plates move towards each other, due to the difference in density, the more dense oceanic plate sinks and is forced beneath the less dense continental plate
transform two plates slide past one another, typically with a stick-slip motion - this produces seismic activity and earthquakes
asthenosphere the ductile part of the earth just below the lithosphere, including the upper mantle
igneous rocks such as Granite (below the surface) and Basalt (on the surface) formed from cooled magma
sedimentary rocks formed by the deposition of layers of eroded 'sediments' under various conditions eg. Limestone, Sandstone and Shale
metamorphic sedimentary or igneous rocks altered under intense heat or pressure eg. Marble and Slate
continental plates are between 20-80 km thick and relatively less dense
oceanic plates are thinner, around 10 km thick and relatively dense
hotspots These are super heated areas of magma within the mantle which cause magma to break through the crust eg. Hawaiian Islands in the middle of the Pacific plate.
shield found at constructive, divergent margins, produced by flows of fluid lava which forms gently sloping, low profile cones
composite found at destructive, convergent margins, produced by layers of viscous lava and ash which form steep sloped, tall cones
cinder found close to subduction zones, these are simply produced by layer upon layer of cooled 'blobs' or lava to form a circular or oval cone
fold can be defined as a bend in rock that is the response to compressional forces
fault can be defined as the displacement of once connected blocks of rock along a fault plane
epicentre the point on the Earth surface directly above the focus
focus There is a sudden movement within the crust or mantle, and concentric shock waves move out from that point
p-waves They are high frequency, short-wavelength, longitudinal waves which can pass through both solids and liquids. The ground is forced to move forwards and backwards as it is compressed and decompressed.
s-waves They move in all directions away from their source, at speeds which depend upon the density of the rocks through which they are moving. They cannot move through liquids
l-waves similar to that of waves in the sea. The ground is made to move in a circular motion, causing it to rise and fall as visible waves move across the ground
tsunami giant waves which result from underwater earthquakes or landslides
lahar mudflow made up of volcanic debris
pyroclastic flow super heated explosion of gas, ash and rock
lava flow river of molten rock
Created by: lelowther