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M6 13-005

Exam 16: Intro to Integumentary

Functions of skin Hemostasis (Barrier, sensory organ, temp control). Prevent dehydration. Excrete waste products. Vitamin D synthesis.
Layers of skin Epidermis. Dermis (or Corium). Subcutaneous layer.
Epidermis (3 Layers) Stratum Corneum (avascular & is outer portion. Fill with protein called keratin). Pigment later (Melanin). Stratum germinativum (inner layer of the epidermis, cells reproduce from blood supply through diffusion, new cells replace old cells).
Stratum corneum 1) Avascular and comprises the outer portion. 2) These cells are flat and are filled with a protein called keratin, which makes the cells dry, tough and somewhat waterproof.
Pigment layer 1) Composed of specialized cells called melanocytes. a) Melanin: is a pigment in the skin, which gives the skin color. b) The more melanin, the darker the skin.
Stratum germinativum Inner layer of the epidermis. These cells can reproduce by receiving a blood supply from the underlying dermis through the process of diffusion. New cells replace damaged cells in the stratum corneum. This allows the skin to repair itself.
Dermis or corium just below the epidermis layer. Often referred to as the “True Skin”.
Subcutaneous Layer layer below the dermis that connects the skin to the muscle surface. Sometimes referred to as the superficial fascia.
Appendages of the skin: Sudoriferous (sweat) glands. Ceruminous glands. Sebaceous (oil) glands. Hair. Nails.
Sudoriferous (sweat) glands: Tube-like structures located in the dermis and subcutaneous layers. Excretion of sweat helps cool the body surface. Rid the body of waste products such as uric acid, ammonia and other products.
Ceruminous glands Secrete a waxlike substance called cerumen. Located in the external ear canal.
Sebaceous (oil) glands Secrete sebum through the hair follicles. Function is to lubricate the skin and hair. Sebum also inhibits bacterial growth.
Hair composed of modified dead epidermal tissue (keratin).
Nails composed of tightly packed keratin.
Changes in the skin are the most readily recognized signs of aging ↓ tissue fluid, SQ fat, & sebaceous secretion. More fragile. Hyperkeratotic. Localized clusters of melanocytes (age spots). Cell carcinoma ↑ age.
Diseases that may affect skin Diabetes. Cancer. Kidney failure. Thyroid disease. Liver disease. Anemia.
with darker skin people rely on _____ during assessment rather than observation palpation
Scratch test scratching of the skin and applying a small amount of the test allergen.
Patch test applying a substance to the skin and covering with a dressing then examined in 48 hours
Corticsteroids topically or administered systemically
Antihistamines relieve itching and shorten the duration of an allergic reaction.
Antibiotics, antifungal and antiviral agents used to treat infectious disorders
Scabicides and pediculicides used in the treatment of infestations with scabies and mite and lice.
Local (topical) anesthetics applied to relieve minor skin pain and itching
Emolients, ointments, powders and lotions sooth, protect and soften the skin
Antiseborrheic agents applied directly to the scalp or as part of a shampoo.
Antiseptics used to reduce bacteria on the skin
Keratolytics dissolve thickened, cornified skin such as warts, corns, and calluses. Treated area softens and swells, facilitation removal.
Wet to Dry Dressings Used to soothe, soften and remove crusts, debris and necrotic tissue. After soak, gently dry the treated area, then apply topical medication as ordered.
Therapeutic Baths Used to relieve inflammation and itching and to aid in the removal of crusts and scales.
Surgical Excision used to remove benign or malignant tissue
Laser Therapy vaporizes tissue and coagulates bleeding. Must protect eyes
Photo Therapy Ultraviolet light used to promote shedding of the epidermis
Created by: jtzuetrong