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social studies final

mr. syph 7-2 final stack

The old kingdom 2700-2200 BC Age of Pyramids when early pharaohs set up central govt
The Middle Kingdom 2000-1800 BC Egyptians enjoyed many achievements in literature, art and architecture
The New Kingdom 1600-1100 BC Egypt's Golden Age. Egypt reached it's height of power and had peace and stability
Khufu Ruled in the old kingdom (2551-2528); built great pyramid of Giza, made himself a god
How long did it take to build the great Pyramid of Giza 20 years, built by Khufu
Ramses II Ruled in new kingdom (1290-1224); had 100+ wives, signed a peace treaty with Hihites, (babies, battles, buildings) Built temple of Abur Simbol
Senusret Ruled in Middle Kingdom 1971-1926 BC. ruled stable and unified Egypt. Built White Chapel, arts thrived under his rule, built many religious monuments (temples and shrines)
Hatshepsut Ruled in New Kingdon (1473-1458 BC) First female pharaoh promoted trade, Punt expedition, filled government with loyal advisors, temple at Dayr al-bahari
Valley of the Kings 500 years (16th -11th BC) Tombs for pharaohs , opposite Thebes, opposite bank of the Nile, King Tut's tomb - undiscovered and preserved. all underground
Social Order pharaohs were most important , gov't officials 2nd, priests 3rd, scribes 4th , artisans 5th and peasants were lowest
writing done by scribes, respected and well paid. had to memorize 700 hieroglyphs ; done with reeds and papyrus
Dynasty the line of heredity that rules a country; a family or group that ruled for several generations
geography 3 main parts: mainland, peninsula, and the islands; surrounded by seas on 3 sides, many islands, not much flat land, no large rivers
Greek Colonies promoted trade and farming, travel was hard, unpaved roads, isolated communities, farmers grew grapes and olives, lots of farmers, population increased - not enough room
democracy all citizens share ruling power; assembly passed laws; all free men could vote;
Council of 500 part of the democracy; ran daily business of government; made laws
Athens vs. Sparta Sparta - isolated, didn't like outsiders, war lovers Athens - next to sea, encouraged visitors, focus on education/war - farmers, good citizens, traders and soldiers
Causes of the persian war Ionians revolted - greece helps fight war with Persia Darius wants to conquer Greece - sent messengers that were thrown in wells. Darius sent soldiers to battle - greece helped then left. Ionia burned
Battle of marathon 490 BCE - 15,000 foot soldiers and cavalry were sent across teh Aegean Sea by Darius - assembled on the plain of Marathon. Miltiades convinced the Athenians they had to fight Persians. Athenians, outnumbered, but won. Attacked Persians on 3 sides
Battle of Thermopylae Leonides was Spartan King. Xerxes organized an attack; Athens(navy) and Sparta worked together. Traitor told Persians path through mountains - persians won with bottleneck
Battle of Salamis 480 BCE, Athenians fled city and sailed to island - 2 weeks later Persians burned Athens. Greeks trapped Persians - Themistocles fought Persians in narrow channel near Salamis Greeks won
Battle of Platea Brides were wrecked, Xerxes left Persians in Greece to train to fight Athenians; fought with Spartans; Cavelry was useless ; Persians lost; Greeks united. Last battle
Pericles Inspired people of Athens to rebuild city - brought Athens to golden age - 460-429-BCE; built Parthenon; supporter of democracy; encouraged arts; protection; beautify (long walls, new buildings)
Philosophy talked about world around them, nature, trading - Socrates encouraged questioning - other philosophers Plato and Aristotle love of wisdom
Peloponnesian War 431 BCE Athens and Sparta grew into much conflict. Sparta won - lasted 27 years. Macedonia grew stronger - Sparta weaker. King Philip created well-trained army. Alexender took over after Philip died. Trapped Athens.
Alexander the great Spreads Greek ideas. 20 years old - tutored by Aristotle in public speaking, science and philosophy. Burned towns who resisted power. GOAL - to bring different people of different cultures together under one government. Called himself a god
Geography developed on Italian peninsula - long boot shaped. 2 major mountain ranges Loft and Alps (west to east) and Apennines . High and rocky coastline. PO and Tiber river - surrounded by hills
Romulus and Remus mythical founders of Rome - twin brothers saved by wolf. Fought over who would rule Romulus won and killed brother. Founder of Rome
Patrician wealthy land owners
Plebians mostly peasants, laborers, craftspeople and shop keepers 95% of Roman population. Couldn't be priests or gov't officials. forced to serve in the army
Hannibal Carthaginian general attacked in second Punic War (218 BC) surprised Romans by marching into Rome with elephants. Returned to carthage - Carthage burned to ground
Punic Wars wars fought with Carthage (city-state in North Africa) Fought for control of Mediteranian area (264-146 BC) First war at sea Rome won - Rome took Sicily. Second War marched to Italy, Rome won and got Spain and $$$. Carthage burned 50 years.
Pax Romana Roman Peace - Mediterranean World at Peace for 200 years under Romes power. Augustus's reign a rebellion in East stopped. Britain to Red Sea.
Roman Buildings colosseum - a large arena where gladiator games held Multiple recreation buildings; sewer pipes, circus maximus - large stadium used for Chariot Races
Jesus founder of Christianity - life and teachings on which religion is based Born 6 BCE in Bethlehem; preached in modern day Israel - based teachings on Jewish beliefs. Son of God - betrayed by follower, tied to cross and killed , resurrected on Easter
Fall of Rome political stability, military, religion, medical, sociological, economic and social issues - weakening frontiers were hard to defend
Caesar Supreme priest, senator, first triumvirate, council, Governor of Gaul, Dictator and General. Death ends the republic.
Accomplishments of Caesar controls debt, builds libraries, reduces unemployment, revises and renames calendar, reduces taxes and imports
Augustus Caesar's adopted great nephew and heir. Senator, consul creator of Pax Romana - Accomplishments: first police force and fire brigade, connected roads to major cities, created the Piaetorian Guard (for his own protection)
Romulus Augustulus Last emperor of the West - 10/11 years old 476 CE. Western Empire fell
Hadrian Best known for Hadrian's wall - marking the Northern limit of Roman Britain. Rebuilt Pantheon - was gay - considered 3rd of 5 "good" emperors
Titus First emperor to come into power after his father - 2nd "good' emperor. Destroyed the temple of Jeruseleum - completed construction of the colosseum
Vespasian Founder of the Flavian - military commander conquered Britain and stopped rebellion in Judia. Began building colosseum. Known for financial reforms (after Nero) 1st "good" emperor
Nero 6th emperor of Rome - wanted to be an artist not ruler . Did not start fire that burned 1/3 of Rome. Did not play the fiddle while Rome burned. His army revolts and he commits suicide
Agrippina the Younger Mother of Nero who poisoned Claudius so Nero would become emperor . co-ruled empire with Nero who resented her controlling behavior. Nero had her killed
Claudius 4th emperor of Rome. Co-council with Caligula. Accomplishments: ambisous builder (aqucladia), conquered Ghrace, Judia and some of Britain
Caligula means little shoe/little boot. Mother Agrippima the Elder helped him into power by poisoning Tyberius. 3rd emperor of Rome, worked to make emperor have total power. crazy - senate had him killed
Constantine known to Christians as Constantine the Great
Fertile Crescent an arc shaped region in Southwest Asia with very rich soil known as Mesopotamia low plains; flat lands; little rain - Tigris and Euphrates River North of Arapian Pennisula
River Valley Tigris and Euphrates river surrounded Mesopotamia. Rivers brought waters to plains during floods - dry for most of the year since water supply wasn't controlled well. In Southern Valley
Mesopotamia geographical area between Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Northern part hilly and rainy Souther part flat and very hot means land between 2 rivers
City States small independent country with own laws and government. walled cities for protections 3000 BC most Sumerians lived inside city-states
Scribes people who write - wrote down laws. Sumerians were first to come up with written law system
Religion effected very part of life brought people together; constructed temples (ziggurats); believed Gods resided in temples. King was God
Ziggurat religious temples and towers that kings built and maintained. Made of mud bricks; shrines on highest tiers - temple for worship
Inventions Sumerians invente the wheel Sumerians built arches by using keystones to add strength and stability Invented plow, chariot and irragation systems
Cuneiform writing that uses wedge shaped characters based off pictographs first used to record goods exchanged created by Sumerians - started with 2000 characters and reduced to 700
Akkadian Accomplishments language (took over Sumerian language) 3-d art sculptures Steles Ruled by Sargon, skilled military leader, for 156 years First Empire
Hammurabi King of Babylon - conquered the rest of Mesopotamia Wrote code of laws 1792-1750 BC covering trade, work payment, marriage, divorce and armies Used the code to unify empire and preserve order
Siege Weapons army soldiers camped outside city and repeatedly attacked until city fell. First to use battering rams built movable towers that rolled up to city walls
Assyrian Accomplishments built palaces in honor of gods; built first aqueducts bas-reliefs 2D realistic sculpture lasted 300 years controlled from Egypt ot Persian Gulf
Babylonian Accomplishments lush gardens watering systems skilled in astronomy and math created first sundial - 60 min/hour and 7 days/week modern calendar hanging gardens and ishtar gate
Geography of Egypt lots of desert; little vegetation (scrubs), rich soil in Nile valley; hot and dry; surrounded by desert. Nile flows North and brings silt Desert was protection
Roman Republic form of government which leaders are elected to represent people
Tribune official of Rome elected by Plebians to represent them
Civic Duty right to participate in government
constitution a set of basic laws
veto to refuse to approve proposals of government
Senate group of 500 men elect ed to govern Rome
Consul one of a chief leader in Rome
Created by: jbd1