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M6 13-005

Exam 12: Peds Across the Life Span

Informed Consent Before undergoing any invasive procedures, the patient or legal surrogate must receive sufficient information to make an informed decision.
For Informed Consent to be valid, what 3 Conditions must be met? (1)Person must be over the age of majority (usually 18) and considered competent. (2)Person must receive all the information to make an informed decision. (3)Person must act voluntarily without force or coercion.
Parental consent is also required for: (1)Taking photos. (2)Removal from the facility against medical advice. (3)Postmortem examinations. (4)Release of medical information.
Assent of older children and adolescents means that they are also informed about what will happen to them and are willing to undergo the procedure.
Who is responsible to explaining the procedure and obtaining consent? The provider performing the procedure.
emancipated minor one who is legally under age, but is recognized as having the legal capacity of an adult in certain situations such as pregnancy, marriage or military service.
5 Goals of Drugs (Pre-op) Guard patient safety and welfare. Minimize discomfort and pain. Minimize negative psychological responses to treatment by maximizing their potential for amnesia. Control behavior. Returning patients to a state in which safe discharge is possible.
Mummy Restraint Used for jugular venipuncture.
Frog position used for femoral venipuncture
Enema: Plain water is not used because It can cause rapid fluid shift and fluid overload. Fleet enema is not advised because of harsh reactions to ingredients.
Pediatric Oxygen delivery (types) Via incubator. Plastic hood. Nasal Cannula. Masks are not well tolerated. Oxygen tent.
Akinesia abnormal state of motor and psychic hypoactivity
Aphasia defective or absent vocal function.
Arthritis any inflammatory condition of the joints, characterized by pain, swelling, heat, redness, and limitation of movement; two types.
Dysarthria difficulty speaking
Dysphagia difficulty swallowing.
Hemiplegia paralysis on one side of the body.
Senile state of physical and mental deterioration associated with aging.
Presbycusis decreased hearing associated with aging
Presbuopia decreased vision associated with aging.
Senescence the last stage in the life cycle; causes a gradual degeneration of body processes.
The rate of senescence is slowed by diet, exercise, stress reduction and health promotion.
Ageism a form of prejudice that describes behaviors and beliefs that depict older adults in a negative, inaccurate, or stereotypical manner.
Gerontology study of aging, including physiological, psychological and social aspects.
Biologic theories of aging Programmed aging. Genetic Factors. Immunologic. Free Radical. Wear and tear.
Programmed aging cells in the body can reproduce only 40 to 60 times. Aging takes place when more and more cells can no longer regenerate themselves.
Genetic factors persons inherit a genetic program that determines their specific life expectancy.
Young old 65-74
middle old 75-84
Old old 85 and ↑
Immunologic through the immune system becoming less effective and/or less able to distinguish between foreign and host cells less protection from infection or disease and the immune system destroying body cells that it misreads as defective or foreign.
Free radical in the metabolism of the body to produce energy, extra electrons are released that build up in the body and combine chemically, damaging cells and interfering with normal body function, resulting in aging.
Wear and tear cells of the body wear out from internal and external stress, which can include chemical damage, trauma, or dysfunction of body systems and buildup of waste products.
Erikson's developmental stages: Later years in the last stage of life, the task is acceptance of life and one's own lifestyle, which can result in ego integrity. Inability to achieve a level of acceptance results in anger and despair.
Disengagement theory aging is a process in which older adults and society gradually withdraw from each other to the mutual satisfaction of both.
Exchange theory aging is reduced interaction between older adults and society as a result of decreasing value that interaction has for both.
Activity theory older adults develop a positive concept of self as a result of maintaining ongoing social interactions. Substitute relationship roles.
Continuity theory personality remains the same and behavior becomes more predictable as people age.
Claudication a cramping pain in the legs, is caused by inadequate circulation to the muscles of the legs.
Common nursing diagnosis with the elderly patient Self care deficit, bathing, feeding, dressing related to weakness. Risk for falls related to age related changes. Impaired physical mobility related to age related changes.
Created by: jtzuetrong