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HS1 Exam Review

ankylosis Stiffening and immobility of a joint as a result of disease, trauma, surgery, or abnormal bone fusion
carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) Painful condition resulting from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel (wrist canal through which the flexor tendons and the median nerve pass)
claudication Lameness, limping
contracture Fibrosis of connective tissue in the skin, fascia, muscle, or joint capsule that prevents normal mobility of the related tissue or joint
crepitation Dry, grating sound or sensation caused by bone ends rubbing together, indicating a fracture or joint destruction
electromyography Use of electrical stimulation to record the strength of muscle contraction
exacerbation Increase in severity of a disease or any of its symptoms
ganglion cyst tumor of tendon sheath or joint capsule, commonly found in the wrist
hemarthrosis Effusion of blood into a joint cavity
hypotonia Loss of muscular tone or a diminished resistance to passive stretching
multiple myeloma Primary malignant tumor that infiltrates the bone and red bone marrow
osteophyte Bony outgrowth that occasionally develops on the vertebra and may exert pressure on the spinal cord also called bone spur.
phantom limb Perceived sensation, following amputation of a limb, that the limb still exists
prosthesis Replacement of a missing part by an artificial substitute, such as an artificial extremity
rickets Form of osteomalacia in children caused by vitamin D deficiency; also called rachitis
sequestrum Fragment of necrosed bone that has become separated from surrounding tissue
spondylolisthesis Any slipping (subluxation) of a vertebra from its normal position in relationship to the one beneath it
spondylosis Degeneration of the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar vertebrae and related tissues may cause pressure on nerve roots with subsequent pain or paresthesia in the extremities.
sprain Tearing of ligament tissue that may be slight, moderate, or complete
strain To exert physical force in a manner that may result in injury, usually muscular
subluxation Partial or incomplete dislocation
talipes equinovarus Congenital deformity of one or both feet in which the foot is pulled downward and laterally to the side; also called clubfoot
arthrography Series of radiographs taken after injection of contrast material into a joint cavity, especially the knee or shoulder, to outline the contour of the joint
bone density tests Radiographic procedures that use low-energy x-ray absorption to measure bone mineral density. They are used to determine if demineralization from osteoporosis has occurred.
computed tomography (CT) maging technique that uses an x-ray beam and a computer to make a series of cross-sectional images of a body part, which together make up a three-dimensional view of the area scanned; formerly called computerized axial tomography (CAT)
discography Radiological examination of the intervertebral disk structures by injecting a contrast medium
lumbosacral spinal radiography Radiography of the five lumbar vertebrae and the fused sacral vertebrae, including anteroposterior, lateral, and oblique views of the lower spine.
myelography Radiography of the spinal cord after injection of a contrast medium to identify and study spinal distortions caused by tumors, cysts, herniated intervertebral disks, or other lesions
scintigraphy Nuclear medicine procedure that visualizes various tissues and organs after administration of a radionuclide.
bone scintigraphy Scintigraphy procedure in which radionuclide is injected intravenously and taken up into the bone.
Closed reduction Reduction procedure where fractured bones are realigned by manipulation rather than surgery.
Open Reduction Reduction procedure that treats bone fractures by placing the bones in their proper position using surgery.
casting Application of a solid, stiff dressing formed with plaster of Paris or other material to a body part to immobilize it during the healing process
splinting Application of an orthopedic device to an injured body part for immobilization, stabilization, and protection during the healing process
traction Use of weights and pulleys to align or immobilize a fracture and facilitate the healing process
amputation Partial or complete removal of an extremity due to trauma or circulatory disease
arthrocentesis Puncture of a joint space using a needle to remove accumulated fluid
arthroclasia Surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement
arthroscopy Visual examination of the interior of a joint and its structures using a thin, flexible fiberoptic scope called an arthroscope that contains a magnifying lens, fiberoptic light, and miniature camera that projects images on a monitor
bone grafting Implanting or transplanting bone tissue from another part of the body or from another person to serve as replacement for damaged or missing bone tissue
bursectomy Excision of bursa (padlike sac or cavity found in connective tissue, usually in the vicinity of joints)
laminectomy Excision of the posterior arch of a vertebra. Most commonly performed to relieve the symptoms of a ruptured intervertebral (slipped) disk.
revision surgery Surgery repeated to correct problems of a previously unsuccessful surgery or to replace a worn out prothesis
Bone revision surgery Revision surgery are often required to correct bone infection, misalignments of bones, broken prosthesis, and fractures of the bone around the prostheses.
sequestrectomy Excision of a sequestrum (segment of necrosed bone)
synovectomy Excision of a synovial membrane
total hip replacement Surgical procedure to replace a hip joint damaged by a degenerative disease, commonly arthritis
Calcium Supplements Treat and prevent hypocalcemia. Names: Calcium Carbonate (Calci-Mix, Tums); Calcium Citrate (Cal-Citrate 250, Citracal)
Gold Salts Treat rheumatoid arthritis by inhibiting activity within the immune system. Names: auranofin (Ridaura); aurothioglucose (Solganal)
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) Decrease Pain and suppress inflammation Names: ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin); naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn)
Salicylates Relieve mild to moderate pain and reduce inflammation Names: aspirin (Acuprin, Aspergum, Bayer Aspirin); magnesium salicylate (Magan, Mobidin)
skeletal muscle relaxants Relieve muscle spasms and stiffness Names: cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril); methocarbamol and aspirin (Robaxin)
ACL anterior cruciate ligament
AE above the elbow
AK above the knee
BE barium enema; below the elbow
BK below the knee
C1, C2, and so on first cervical vertebra, second cervical vertebra, and so on
Ca calcium; cancer
CDH congenital dislocation of the hip
CTS carpal tunnel syndrome
CT computed tomography
DEXA, DXA dual energy x-ray absorptiometry
DJD degenerative joint disease
EMG electromyography
Fx fracture
MG myasthenia gravis
HD hemodialysis; hip disarticul ation; hearing distance
HNP herniated nucleus pulposus (herniated disk)
HP hemipelvectomy
IS intracostal space
IM intramuscular; infectious mononucleosis
IV intravenous
KD knee disarticulation
L1, L2, and so on first lumbar vertebra, second lumbar vertebra, and so on
LS lumbosacral spine
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
MS musculoskeletal; multiple sclerosis; mental status; mitral stenosis
NSAIDs nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
ORTH, ortho orthopedics
P phosphorus; pulse
PCL posterior cruciate ligament
RA rheumatoid arthritis; right atrium
RF rheumatoid factor; radio frequency
ROM range of motion
Created by: All_Hail_Dani