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MA tech 2

Medical Assisting Techniques 2

Abrasion a wound in which the outer layers of skin are damaged; a scrape
abscess a collection of pus in a cavity surrounded by inflamed tissue
absorbable suture suture material that is gradually digested and absorbed by the body
approximation the process of bringing two parts together through the use of sutures or other means
bandage a strip of woven material used to wrap or covor a part of the body
biopsy surgical removal and examination of tissue from a living body
capillary action the action that causes liquid to rise along a wick, tube or a gauze dressing
colposcope lighted instrument with a binocular magnifying lens used to examine the vagina and cervix
colposcopy visual examination of the vagina and cervix using a colposcope
contaminate as it relates to strile technique,to cause a sterile object or surface to become unsterile
contusion an injury to the tissues under the skin that causes blood vessels to rupture, allowing blood to seep into the tissues; a bruise
cryosurgery therapeutic use of freezing temperatures to destroy abnormal tissues
exudate a drainage produced by the body's tissue
fibroblast an immature cell from which connective tissue can develop
forceps instrument for grasping, holing tissue or an item and squeezing
furuncle a localized staphylococcal infection that originates deep within the hair follicle; a boil
hemostasis the arrest of bleeding by natrual or artificial means
incision a clean cut caused by a cutting instrument
infection the condition in which the body, or part of it, is invaded by a pathogen
infiltration the process by which a substance passes into and is deposited within the substance of a cell, tissue or organ
inflammation a protective responce on the body to trauma and entrance of foreign matter
purpose of inflammation to destroy invading microorganisms and remove damaged tissue debris from the area so that proper healing can occur
laceration a wound in which the tissues are torn apart, leaving ragged and irregular edges
ligate to tie off and close a structure such as a severed blood vessel
local anesthetic a drug that produces a loss of feeling and an inability to perceive pain in only a specific part of the body
Mayo tray a broad, flat metal tray placed on a stand and used to hold sterile instruments and supplies when it has been covered with a sterile towel
needle biopsy type of biopsy in which tissue from deep within the body is obtained by insertion of a biopsy needle through the skin
nonabsorbable suture suture material that is not absorbed by the body and either remains permanently in the body tissue and becomes encapsulated by fibrous tissue or is removed
postoperative after a surgical operation
preoperative before a surgical operation
puncture a wound made by a sharp-pointed object piercing the skin
scalpel small, straight surgical knife consisting of a handle and thin, sharp blade; used to divide tissues
scissors a cutting instrument that have ring handles and straight or curved blades
Sebaceous cyst a thin, closed sac or capsule that contains fatty secretions from a sebaceous gland
serum clear, straw-colored part of the blood that remains after solid elements have been seporated out of it
sterile free of all living microorganism and bacterial spores
surgery branch of medicine that deals with operative and manual procedures for correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and treatment of certain diseases
surgical asepsis practices that keep objects and areas sterile or free of microorganisms and spores
sutures material used to approximate tissues with surgical stitches
swaged neddle a needle with suturing material permanently attached to its end
wound a break in the continuity of an external or internal surface caused by physical means
MOS surgical procedure that is restricted to minor office surgery; management of minor conditions that don't require the use of general anesthesia
what are types of MOS performed in medical office? insertion of sutures, sebaceous cyst removal, I&D of infections, mole removal, needle biopsy, cervical biopsy, ingrown toenail removal
I&D incision an drainage of infections to allow for proper healing and helps prevent spreading of infection through the body
when is surgical asepsis used? caring for open wound, when skin surface id penetrated, administration of an injection, when body cavity is entered that is normally sterile
fronting to always face sterile field
operating scissors straight delicate blades with sharp cutting edges; used to cut through tissue
suture scissors hook on tip for getting under suture, blunt end to prevent puncturing of tissues; used to remove sutures
bandage scissors inserted beneath a dressing or bandage to cut it for removal; flat blunt prow protects from punctioning patients skin
thumb forceps serrated tips; used to pick up tissue or hold tissue between adjacent surfaces
tissue forceps have teeth used to grasp tissue and prevent slipping; "rat-toothed" forceps
splinter forceps sharp points used to remove foreign objects from the tissues
dressing forceps blunt ends with coarse-striations for grasping; Adson forcep; used for application and removal of dressings or to hold/ grasp sterile gauze or sutures during MOS
hemostatic forceps serrated tips, ratchets, ring handles and box locks; straight or curved blades; used to clamp off blood vessels and establish hemostasis; Kelly forceps
mosquito hemostatic forceps small, fine tips; smaller then standard Kelly forcep; used to hold delicate tissue or to clamp off smaller blood vessels
needle holder serrated tips designed to hold curved needle securely without damaging it,stubby nose, ring handles, ratchets and box locks; "driver"
retractors used to hold tissue aside to improve exposure of operative area; can be smooth or have teeth
probe used to determine depth of injury
medical asepsis procedures used to reduce the number of microorganisms and prevent their spread; example is handwashing
what are guidelines when caring for instruments? handle carefully, don't pile in heap, keep sharp instruments seporate, keep ratchets in open position when not in use, rinse blood or secretions off ASAP, only use for intended purpose, use proper technique for sanitization and sterilization
types of closed wound fractures, sprains, strains, contusions
types of open wounds incision, laceration, puncture, abrasion
signs of inflammation redness, swelling, pain, warmth
serous exudate contains serum; clear and watery
sanguineous exudate contains RBC's; red- dark red
serosanguineous exudate clear and blood-tinged drainage
purulent exudate contains pus; white in color with possible tinges of pink, green or yellow
suppuration process of pus formation
pus consists of leukocytes, dead tissue debris, dead and living bacteria
function of sterile dressing protect wound from contamination and trauma, absorb drainage, restrict motion
types of nonabsorbable sutures silk, nylon, polyester, stainless steel, surgical skin staples
types of absorbable sutures surgical gut, synthetic materials
Aught size range below 0
how long are sutures in face or neck left in? 3 to 5 days
how long are sutures in chest, arms. legs hands or feet left in? 7 to 14 days
two advantages to surgical staples fastest method of closing long skin incisions, reduced trauma to tissue
advantages of adhesive skin closures sutures and local anesthetic are not needed, easily applied and removed, lower incidence of wound infection compared to sutures, less scarring than sutures
purpose of preparing skin before MOS to reduce abundance of microorganisms found on skin that can cause wound contamination and possible infection
purpose of a fenestrated drape to provide a sterile area around the operative site in order to decrease contamination of the patients wound
time local anesthetic to take effect 5 to 15 minutes
time local anesthetic typically lasts 1 to 3 hours
functions of an ECG evaluate symptoms(chest apin, SOB, dizziness, palpitations), detect dysrythmias, diagnose damage from MI, determine presence of hypertrophy of heart or electrolyte disturbances, detect heart defects, assess effect of medications or presurgery cardic risk
amplitude refers to amount, extent, size, abundance or fullness
artifact additional electrical activity picked up by the elecrocardiograph that interferes with the normal appearance of the ECG cycles
atherosclerosis buildup of fibrous plaques of fatty deposits and cholesterol on the inner walls of an artery that causes narrowing, obstruction, and hardening of the artery
baseline the flat horizontal line that seporates the various waves of the ECG cycle
cardiac cycle one complete heartbeat
dysrhythmia an irregular heart rate or rhythm
ECG cycle the graphic representation of a heartbeat
ECG electrocardiogram; the graphic representation of the electrical activity of the heart
electrocardiograph instrument used to record the electrical activty of the heart
electrode a conductor of electricity, which is used to promote contact between the body and the electrocardiograph
electrolyte a chemical substance that promotes conduction of an electrical current
flow rate the number of liters of oxygen per minute that come out of an oxygen delivery system
hypoxemia a decrease in the oxygen saturation of the blood
hypoxia a reduction in the oxygen supply to the tissues of the body
interval length of a wave ot the length of a wave with a segment
ischemia deficiency of blood in a body part
normal sinus rhythm refers to an ECG that is within normal limits
oxygen therapy administration of supplemental oxygen at concentrations greater than room air to treat or prevent hypoxemia
peak flow rate the maximum volume of air that can be exhaled when the patient blows into a peak flow meter as forcefully and rapidly as possible
segment the portion of the ECG between two waves
spirometer an instrument for measuring air taken into and expelled from the lungs
spirometry measurement of an individual's breathing capacity by means of a spirometer
wheezing a continuous, high-pitched whistling musical sound heard particularly during exhalation ans sometimes during inhalation
P wave represents atrial depolarization; electrical activity associated with the contraction of the atria
QRS complex represents ventricular depolarization; electrical activity associated with the contraction of the ventricles
T wave represents ventricular repolarization; electrical recpvery of the ventricles
placement of V1 electrode 4th intercostal space at right margin of sternum
placement of V2 electrode 4th intercostal space at left margin of sternum
placement of V3 electrode midway between positions 2 and 4
placement of V4 electrode 5th intercostal space at junction of left midclavicular line
placement of V5 electrode at horizontal level of position 4 at left anterior axillary line
placement of V6 electrode at horizontal level of position 4 at left midaxillary line
what do precordial leads measure use V1-V6 to record heart's voltage from front to back of the heart
Lead I bipolar lead that records current between right arm and left arm
Lead II bipolar lead that records current between right arm and left leg
Lead III bipolar lead that records current between left arm and left leg
which lead is used as a ground? Right leg
aVR augmented voltage-right; records current between right arm and central point between left arm and left leg
aVL augmented voltage-left; records current between left arm and central point between right arm and left leg
aVF augmented voltage- left leg or foot; records current between left foot and central point between right arm and left arm
describe ECG paper divided into two sets of squares, contains a thermo-sensitive coating and is pressure-sensitive
describe electrolyte a gel that is combined with adhesive to aid the facilitation of the transmission of the heart's electrical impulses
what are electrides made of? thin metalic substance that is a good conductor of electricity
normal paper speed of ECG 25mm/sec
what does sensitivity refer to in ECG? the number of boxes on the ECG paper in relation to the speed of recording
why would ECG speed or sensitivity need to change? if person's numbers were off the charts or with tachycardia to obtain a clearer image
what are 3 types of ECG machines multi-channel, teletransmission, interpretive electrocardiograph, EMR Connectivity
what are 4 types of artifacts muscle, wandering baseline, 60-cycle interference,interrupted baseline
muscle artifact caused by involuntary or voluntary muscle movement resulting in a fuzzy, irregular baseline
wandering baseline artifact caused by loose electrodes, dried-out electrolyte on electrode, lubrication of electrode sites or excessive movement of chest during respiration resulting in a poor transmission of electrical impulse
60-cycle interference artifact caused by electrical interference from crossed lead wires or other electrical equipment in the room, wiring in walls, improper grounding of ECG machine resulting in consistent small straight spiked lines on paper so baseline becomes thick & unreadable
interrupted baseline artifact caused by lead wire detachment or damaged to patient cable rusulting in a break in the baseline
What lead is used to run a rhythm strip Lead II
describe a Holter Monitor Portable monitoring system that records electrical activity of the heart continuously for 24 hours or more
atrial premature contraction extra beat; most harmless of cardiac dysrthythmias
proxysmal atrial tachycardia periodic rapid heart rate
arterial flutter "butterflies"
atrial fibrillation quivers, atria don't contract well
premature ventricular contraction leads to ventricular fibrillation, very rapid contraction of ventricles
ventricular fibrillation fatal due to ventricles not pumping properly
amplifier device located in the machine that amplifies the electrical impulses
galvanometer changes amplified voltages into mechanical motion
tachycardia irregularly fast heart rate (greater than 100 beats/min)
bradycardia irregularly slow heart rate (less than 60 beats/min)
purpose of first aid To save a life, Reduce pain and suffering, Prevent further injury, Reduce the incidence of permanent disability, Increase the opportunity for early recovery
purpose of EMS system to provide emergency care after injury or sudden illness in order to increase the victims chances of survival and further complication
describe asthema wheezing, coughing, dyspnea
describe emphysema damged alveoli and lose elasticity
hyperventilation "overbreathing", respirations are rapid and deep
symptoms of a heart attack chest pain, shortness of breath, profuse perspiration, nausea, fainting
symptoms of a stroke sudden lateral weakness or numbness of face, arm or leg; difficulty speaking; dimmed vision; dizziness;confusion; severe headache; loss of consciousness
Cardiogenic Shock When heart has been injured or damaged (MI, dysrhythmias, severe congestive heart failure, acute valvular damage, pulmonary embolism)
Neurogenic Shock Nervous system is unable to control the diameter of blood vessels (blood vessels dilate= blood pressure drops)
Anaphylatic Shock Serious life-threatening reaction of body to an allergen (drugs, insect venoms, foods, allergen extracts used in hyposensitization injections)
Psychogenic Shock Unpleasant physical or emotional stimuli (pain, fright, sight of blood) leading to dilation of blood vessels
Hypovolemic Shock Loss of blood or other body fluids
discribe capillary bleeding slow oozing, bright red
describe venous bleeding slow and stedy flow, dark red
discribe arterial bleeding spurts/sprays, bright red
impacted fracture the broken ends of the bones are forcefully jammed together
greenstick fracxutre the bone remains intact on one side, but broken on the other
transverse fracture the break occurs perpendicular to the long axis of the bone
oblique fracture the break occurs diagnally across the bone; generally result of twisting force
comminuted fracture the bone is splintered or shattered into three or more fragments; usually from extreme traumatic direct force
spiral fracture the bone is broken into a spiral or S-shape; caused by a twisting force
discribe 1st degree burn superficial; Involves epidermis Appears red, warm and dry to touch Usually painful Heals in 2-5 days Doesn’t cause scarring
discribe 2nd degree burn Partial Thickness; Involves epidermis and dermis Appears red, mottled and blistered Usually very painful Heals in 3-4 weeks May result in some scarring
discribe 3rd degree burn Full Thickness; Completely destroys epidermis and dermis; Extends into underlying tissues (fat, muscle, bone, nerves); Appears charred black, brown and cherry red; May experience intense pain or no pain if nerves damaged; Typically reults in dense scars
partial seizure abnormal electrical activity is localized into very specific areas of the brain
Generalized seizure abnormal electrical activity spreads throughout the brain
Insulin Shock administration of too much insulin, skipping meals, unexpected or unusual exercise
Diabetic Coma illness and infection, overeating, forgetting to administer insulin injection, administering insufficient insulin
symptoms of a seizure Abnormal behavior Glassy stare Aimless wandering Lip smacking or chewing Fidgeting with clothing Loss of consciousness Rigid muscular contractions Violent body jerks Headache Disoriented
symptoms of heat exposure Painful muscle spasms Hot, sweaty skin Weakness Rapid pulse Headache Nausea Diarrhea
treatment for heat exposure Remove patient to a cool environment Rest Replace fluids Loosen clothing Call EMS if not
symptoms of cold exposure Loss of feeling in affected area Cold and waxy skin White, yellow or blue discoloration of skin Shivering Drowsiness Apathy Glassy stare Decreased level of consciousness
treatment for cold exposure Rewarm affected body part Loosely wrap in warm clothing Place frozen area next to another body part Don’t massage or rub area
treatment for diabetic coma needs insulin, mmediatly transport to emergency facility
treatment for insulin shock needs sugar immediatly, immediatly transport to emergency facility
symotoms of diabetic coma Polyuria Excessive thirst and hunger Vomiting and abnormal pain Dry warm skin Rapid and deep sighing respirations Fruity odor to breath Rapid weak pulse
sympotoms of insulin shock Normal or rapid respiration Pale, cold and clammy skin Sweating Dizziness and headache Full rapid pulse Normal or high blood pressure Extreme hunger Aggressive or unusual behavior Fainting, seizure or coma
symptoms of injected poisons Altered state of awareness Evidence of stings, bites or puncture marks on skin Mottled skin Localized pain or itching Burning, swelling, or blistering at site Difficulty breathing Abnormal pulse rate Nausea and vomiting Anaphylactic shock
treatment for injected poisons Seek medical care or call EMS Scrape stinger and attached venom sac off Wash wound Apply cold pack (except for snake bites) Control bleeding if present
symptoms of absorbed poisons Irritation, burning, itching Burning of skin and eyes Headache Abnormal pulse and/or respiration
treatment for absorbed poisons Remove patient from source Call poison control or EMS
symptoms for inhaled poisons Severe headache Nausea & vomiting Coughing or wheezing Shortness of breath Chest pain or tightness Facial Burns Cyanosis
symptoms of ingested poisons Strange odors, burns or stains near mouth Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea Difficulty breathing Profuse perspiration Excessive salivation Dilated or constricted pupils convulsions
treatment for inhaled poisons If safe to approach remove individual from source Call poison control or EMS
treatment for ingested poisons Acquire information about poison ( type, when, how much) Call poison control or EMS If vomit: collect sample
treatment for seizures Protect patient from harm Remove hazards from area Don’t restrain patient Loosen clothing Roll on side in vomiting occurs Call EMS
burn an injury to the tissues caused by exposure to thermal, chemical, electrical or radioactive agents
crash cart a specially equipped cart for holding and transporting medications, equiptment and supplies needed for lifesaving procedures in an emergency
dislocation an injury in which one end of a bone making up a joint is seporated or displaced from its normal anatomic position
EMS emergency medical services; a network of community resources, equiptment and personnel that provides care to victims of injury or sudden illness
first aid immediate care administered before complete medical care can be provided to the individual who is injured or suddenly becomes ill
fracture any break in a bone
hypothermia a life-threatening condition in which the temperature of the entire body falls to a dangerously low level
poison any substance that causes illiness, injury, or death if it enters the body
pressure point a site on the body where an artery lies close to the surface of the skin and can be compressed against an underlying bone to control bleeding
seizure a sudden episode of involuntary muscular contractions and relaxations, often accompanied by changes in sensation, behavior and level of consciousness
shock the failure of the cardiovascular system to deliver enough blood to all of the vital organs of the body
splint any device that immobilizes a body part
sprain trauma to a joint that causes tearing of ligaments
strain a stretching or tearing of muscles or tendons caused by trauma
most frequently used “routes” of parenteral medications subcutaneous, intramuscular, intradermal
what route for parenteral medication offers the most rapid rate of absorption intramuscular
advantages associated with parenteral medications Absorbed more rapid and completely than oral May be only way drug can be given Required with certain conditions (unconscious patient, gastric disturbance)
disadvantages associated with parenteral medications pain possible infection
3 types of syringes Hypodermic: calibrated in mL Insulin: calibrated in units Tuberculin: calibrations divided into tenths and hundredths of a mL
what are the 7 rights of drug administration Right drug Right dose Right time Right patient Right route Right technique Right documentation
what angle is used for subutaneous injection 45
what angle is used for intramuscular injection 90
what angle is used for interdermal injection 15 or paralle to skin
what needle gauge range is used for subcutaneous injections 23 to 25
what needle gauge range is used for intramuscular injections 18 to 22
what needle gauge range is used for intradermal injections 25 to 27
what length needle is used for subcutaneous injections 5/8" to 1/2"
what length needle is used for intramuscular injections 1" to 3"
what length needle is used for intradermal injections 3/8" to 5/8"
common sites for subcutaneous injections Upper lateral part of arm, anterior thigh, upper back, abdomen
common sites for intramuscular injections Deltoid, gluteus maximus
common sites for intradermal injections Anterior forearm, middle of back, upper arm
purpose of “aspirating” when administering parenteral medications To make sure not in vessel
why use z-tracking • Seals off needle track, prevents medication from reaching SC layer or skin surface - Used when medications can irritate or discolor skin/ SC tissue
allergen a substance that is capable of causing an allergic reaction
gauge the diameter of the lumen of a needle used to administer medication
induration an abnormally raised, hardened area of skin with clearlt defined margins
parenteral administration of medication by injection
vial a closed glass container with a rubber stopper that holds medication
wheal a tense, pale, raised area of the skin
ampule a small sealed glass container that holds a single dose of medication
purpose of applying heat relieves pain, congestion, muscle spasms and inflammation
types of heat applications heating pad, hot soak, hot compress, chemical hot pack
purpose of applying cold prevents edema if applied immediately, limits accumulation of fluid, controls bleeding, temporarily relieves pain, reduces inflammation
types of cold applications ice bag, cold compress, chemical cold pack
ambulation walking or moving from one place to another
types of crutches axillary crutch, forearm crutch
crutch palsy muscular weakness in the forearm, wrist and hand from injury to radial nerve when crutches are not proper height
what angle should elbow be if handgrip of crutches are at proper height 20%-30% angle
four-point gait both feet and crutches on ground
two-point gait 1 foot and 1 crutch move together
three-point gait one foot and both crutches on ground
swing gait swing-to ot swing-through
types of canes standard (least amount of support) tripod and quad canes (bulkier and more difficult to move)
what side of body does cane go on opposite side as need support
who benifits from use of walker patients who need more help with balance and walking than can be provided by crutches or cane
examples of contrast medium studies barium swallow, barium enema, cholecystogram, intravenous pyelogram
computed tomography CT; combination of x-rays and computers to create cross sectional images of the body
sonography unltrasound; uses high frequency sound waves to create cross sectional still or real time images of the body
magnetic resonance imaging MRI; uses a combination of high intensity magnetic fields, radio waves and computers to create cross sectional images of the body (some use contrast media)
nuclear medicine small amounts of radionuclides are injucted into the body and are designed to concentrate in specific areas of the body (thyroid, brain, lungs, liver, spleen are most common)
mammography specialized x-ray of the breast, used as a screening tool for breast cancer
Created by: jabert1