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psy final

Psychologists define learning as the process of acquiring new information of relatively enduring behaviors.
If a sea slug on repeated occasions receives an electric shock after being squirted with water, its protective withdrawal response to a squirt of water grows stronger. This best illustrates associative learning
Conditioning is the process of learning associations
In classical conditioning a stimulus is any event or situation that evokes a reponse
Jordan is frightened by the sound of a train whistle. The sound is a stimulus
Children often learn to associate pushing a vending machine button with the delivery of a candy bar. This best illustrates the process underlying operant conditioning
The acquisition of mental information by observing events, watching others, or through language is called cognitive learning
In classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning is called a neutral stimulus
Which of the following is an unconditioned response? sweating in hot weather
Makayla developed an intense fear of flying 5 years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicated that her fear has undergone extinction
Monica's psychotherapist reminds her so much of her own father that she has many of the same mixed emotional reactions to him that she has to her own dad. Her reactions to her therapist best illustrate the importance of generalization
In which form of learning is behavior influenced by its consequences? operant conditioning
5 year old Trevor is emotionally disturbed and refuses to communicate with anyone. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only clearly for a spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. This is shaping
Any stimulus that when presented after a response, strengthens the response is called a positive reinforcer
Any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response is called a negative reinforcer
Mason, a stockbroker, runs 2 miles each day after work because it reduces his levels of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ___ reinforcer. negative
A reponse is learned most rapidly and is most resistant to extinction if it is aquired under conditions of continuous reinforcement followed by partial reinforcement
A partial schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses is a ____ schedule. variable-ratio
Negative reinforcers ___ the rate of operant responding, and punishments ___ the rate of operant responding. increase, decrease
Positive punishment is the introduction of an ___ stimulus following behavior and negative punishment is the withdrawal of a ___ stimulus following a behavior. aversive, pleasant
The use of physical punishment may have all of these results.
For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of reinforcement over punishment.
Megan fails to see any connection between how hard she works and the size of her annual pay raises. Consequently, she stops caring. This best illustrates the importance of ___ in operant conditioning. cognitive processes
Because Yuri was curious about behavior, he enrolled in a course. He heard it was easy to boose his GPA, this was a case of ____ motivation. instrinsic
Dan and Joel, both 4, have been watching reruns of Superman. Joel's mother recently found the boys on the roof trying to fly. What is this behavior? observational learning
Without conscious reflection, people often yawn when they observe others yawning. Researchers are now considering whether this can be attributed to mirror neuron activity
The persistence of learning over time most clearly depends on memory
The process of encoding refers to getting information into memory.
The retention of encoded information over time refers to storage
The original Atkinson-Schiffrin three-stage information-processing model introduced distinctions among sensory memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory.
Conscious rehearsal of what you just heard by a friend tell you requires working memory
Encoding that requires attention and conscious awareness is called effortful processing
Remembering how to solve a puzzle without any conscious recollection that you can do so best illustrates ___ memory. implicit
Explicit memory is also known as declarative memory
An iconic memory is a sensory memory
Echoic memory refers to a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli
A mnemonic is a memory aid
In Daniel's story we watched how a savant is amazing with numerical sequences
The video with the hot air balloon depicted how easy it is to create false memories in others
Professor Pegler's research efforts focus on the use of heuristics influencing how people assess financial risks. Which specialty area does his research represent? cognitive psychology
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people is a concept
Eva had difficulty recognizing that a sea horse was a fish because it did not closely represent her fish prototype
Kevin did not know whether the locker room was located down the short hallway to his right or the long on his left. Crossing his fingers, he tried the short. This is trial and error
An algorithm is a methodical step by step procedure for solving problems
The use of heuristics rather than algorithms is most likely to save time in arriving at solutions to problems
During prior school years, Charlie found it easy to get away with cheating on his tests. Now its not so easy as Charlie has to spend a long time coming up with new ways to cheat. What is this? mental set
In contrast to our explicit conscious reasoning, our seemingly effortless and automatic feelings or thoughts are called intuitions
Our tendency to judge the likelihood of an event on the basis of how readily we can remember instances of its occurrence is called the availability heuristic
Language refers to the spoken, written or signed words and the ways they are combined to communicate meaning
The smallest distinctive unit of language is a phoneme
Morphemes are the smallest speech units that carry meaning
The system of rules in a language that enables us to understand and communicate with others is called grammar
Semantics refers to the rules by which we derive meaning from sounds
The rock musician was hit with a rotten egg while performing. The fact that you can recognize 2 diff meanings for the word hit in the sentence demonstrates the importance of semantics
The ability to produce words is to productive language as the ability to comprehend speech is to ___ language. receptive
Using barely recognizable syllables to communicate meaning best illustrates a 12-month-old's developing capacity for ____. productive language
The earliest stage of speech development is called the ___ stage. babbling
Telegraph speech is most closely associated with the ___ stage of language development. two-word
The ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations is known as intelligence
A statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related test items that seem to tap a common ability is called factor analysis
Factor analysis has been used to assess whether intelligence is a single trait or a collection of distinct abilities
Who is likely to be criticized for extending the definition of intelligence to an overly broad range of talents? Howard Gardner
Injury to certain areas of the ___ lobes can destroy imagination while leaving reading, writing, and arithmetic skills intact. frontal
The factors associated with creativity include expertise and a venturesome personality.
Students who have spent time living abroad and experiencing other cultures are more adept at creative problem solving
Emotional intelligence is a critical component of social intelligence
One component of emotional intelligence involves predicting accurately when feelings are about to change
Your score on the WAIT does not indicate how well you control your impulses or deal effectively with social conflict. This best illustrates that intelligence is a collection of distinctly different abilities.
The French government commissioned Binet to develop an intelligence test that would reduce the need to rely on teachers' biased judgements of students' learning potential.
Intelligence tests were initially designed by Binet and Simon to assess academic aptitude
In developing a test of intellectual ability for Parisian schoolchildren, Binet and Simon assumed that a bright child would perform like a normal child of an older age.
Binet used the term mental age to refer to the chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of intelligence test performance.
Aptitude tests are specifically designed to predict ability to learn a new skill.
Tests designed to assess what a person has learned are called ___ tests. achievement
The WAIS was designed for testing ___ intelligence, whereas the WISC was designed for testing ___ intelligence. adults, children
The test that provides seperate verbal comprehension, perceptual organization, working memory, and processing speed scores, as well as an overall intelligence score, is the WAIS
When a person's test performance can be compared with that of a representative and pretested sample of people, the test is said to be standardized
A test is reliable if it yields dependently consistent scores.
Researchers assess the correlation between scores obtained on alternate forms of the same test in order to measure the ____ of the test. reliability
Dr. Bronfman has administered her new 100-item test of abstract reasoning to a large sample of students. She is presently comparing their scores on the odd-numbered questions with those of the even-numbered questions in an effort to determine the test's reliability.
Which test has been demonstrated to be a highly reliable measure? All of these tests.
A test has a high degree of validity if it measures or predicts what it is supposed to measure or predict.
If both depressed and nondepressed individuals receive similar scores on a diagnostic test for depression, it suggests that the test is not valid
A longitudinal study is one in which the same group of people are tested and retested over a period of years.
Older adults outperformed younger adults in their responses to the NY Times crossword puzzles. The superior performance of these older adults best illustrates the value of crystallized intelligence
Dr. Ligorano has devoted his professional life to researching the desires and needs that energize and direct behavior. His area of research has obviously been motivation.
An instinctive behavior is one that has all of these characteristics.
Like evolutionary psychology, instinct theory most clearly assumed that behavior is influenced by genetic predispositions
Which of the following refers to a physiological state that usually triggers a state of motivational arousal? need
A lack of sufficient oxygen intake is an example of a drive
A drive refers to an aroused, motivated state that is often triggered by a physiological need.
The body's tendency to maintain a constant internal state is known as homeostasis
The influence of personal and cultural experience on our wants an desires can most clearly be seen in the influence of ____ on motivation. incentives
According to Maslow, our need for ___ must be met before we are prompted to satisfy our need for ____. food, love
The concept of a set point best illustrates an explanation of motivation in terms of homeostasis
Some researchers prefer the term settling point to set point because the typical body weight of an adult is influenced by environmental and biological factors.
Carbohydrates such as pasta, chips, and sweets help boost levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin
The consumption of carbohydrates is most likely to reduce stress and tension
A violent illness that follows our eating of a particular food is likely to influence our taste preferences. This illustrates that taste preferences are influenced by learning experiences
Abraham Maslow referred to the need to live up to one's fullest and unique potential as the need for self-actualization
Managers who set standards and keep a group focused on its goals are said to excel in task leadership
Which theory states that emotion results from the cognitive labeling of our physiological arousal? two factor
Vaseem experienced fear because he interpreted his physical symptoms as a reaction to a plane crash, james lange theory
Evidence that visual input is routed from the thalamus directly to the amygdala has been used to support the claim that some emotional reactions may occur without conscious thinking.
Whether we feel angry or depressed in response to a low exam grade depends on whether we attribute the poor grade to an unfair test our to our own low intelligence. This best illustrates that emotions are influenced by cognitive appraisals
During a state of emotional arousal, the adrenal glands release ____ in to the bloodsteam. norepinephrine
Walking home from work late, Jaydra suddenly hears footsteps behind her. Her heart pounds, her muscles tense, and her mouth goes dry. This is activated by her ____ nervous system. sympathetic
Turning in at her st, Dominique saw 6 fire trucks in front of her apt building. Her heart beat wildly until someone yelled false alarm. She then calmed down, due to her ___ nervous system. parasympathetic
As people experience positive emotions, an increase in brain activity is most evident in the left frontal lobe
Created by: hherbst86