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Digestive Terms.

Terminology of the Digestive System

anorexia lack of appetite
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
borborygmus rumbling or gurgling noise produced by the movement of gas, fluid, or both in the gastrointestinal tract
constipation difficulty in passing stools (feces)
diarrhea frequent passage of loose watery stools (feces)
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
eructation gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth
flatus gas expelled through the anus
hematochezia passage of fresh, bright red blood from the rectum
jaundice (icterus) yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of the eyes caused by high levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia)
melena black, tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
nausea unpleasant sensation in the stomach associated with a tendency to vomit
steatorrhea fat in the feces; frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter
aphthous stomatitis inflammation of the mouth with small, painful ulcers
dental caries tooth decay
herpetic stomatitis inflammation of the mouth by infection with the herpesvirus
oral leukoplakia white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth
periodontal disease inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone
achalasia failure of the lower esophagus sphincter (LES) muscle to relax
esophageal varices swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
gastric carcinoma malignant tumor of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
hernia protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it
peptic ulcer open sore or lesion of the mucous membrane of the stomach or duodenum
anal fistula abnormal tube-like passageway near the anus
colonic polyposis polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon
colorectal cancer adenocarcinamo of the colon or rectum, or both
crohn disease (Crohn's) chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract (terminal ileum and colon)
diverticulosis abnormal side pockets (outpouchings) in the intestinal wall
dysentery painful, inflamed intestines
hemorrhoids swollen, twisted, vericose veins in the rectal region
ileus failure of peristalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines
intussusception telescoping of the intestines
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) group of gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress and tension
ulcerative colitis chronic inflammation of the colon with presence of ulcers
volvulus twisting of the intestine on itself
cholelithiasis gallstones in the gallbladder
cirrhosis chronic degenerative disease of the liver
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
viral hepatitis inflammation of the liver caused by a virus
absorption passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
amino acids building blocks of proteins, produced when proteins are digested
amylase enzyme secreted by the pancreas to digest starch
anus opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
appendix blind pouch hanging from the cecum (in the right lower quadrant
bile digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. it breaks up (emulsifies) large fat globules
bilirubin pigment released by the liver in bile
bowel intestine
canine teeth pointed, "dog tooth"-like teeth, next to (distal to) the incisors. also called cuspids or eyeteeth
cecum first part of the large intestine
colon large intestine, consisting of the cecum; the ascending, transverse, and decending segments; and the rectum
common bile duct carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum. also called the choledochus
defecation elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum
deglutition swallowing
dentin major tissue composing teeth, covered by the enamel in the crown and a protective layer of cementum in the root
digestion breakdown of complex foods into simpler forms
duodenum first part of the small intestine
elimination act of removal of materials from the body; in the digestive system, the removal of indigestible materials
emulsification physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules, thereby increasing the surface area that enzymes can use to digest the fat
enamel hard, outermost layer of a tooth
enzyme a chemical that speeds up a reaction between substances
esophagus tube connecting the throat to the stomach
fatty acids substances produced when fats are digested
feces solid wastes; stools
gallbladder small sac under the liver; stores bile
glucose simple sugar
glycogen starch; glucose is stored in this form in liver cells
hydrochloric acid substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion of food
ileum third part of the small intestine; from the Greek eilos, meaning twisted. when the abdomen was viewed at autopsy, the intestine appeared twisted, and the ilium often was an area of obstruction
incisor one of four front teeth in the dental arch
insulin hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas. it transports sugar from the blood into the cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
jejunum second part of the small intestine
lipase pancreatic enzyme necessary to digest fats
liver a large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen. secretes bile; stores sugar, iron, and vitamins; produces blood proteins; and destroys worn out red blood cells
lower esophageal sphincter (LES) ring of muscles between the esophagus and the stomach. also called cardiac sphincter
mastication chewing
molar teeth the sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
palate roof of the mouth
pancreas organ under the stomach; produces insulin (for transport of sugar into cells) and enzymes (for food digestion)
papollea small elevations om=n the tongue
parotid gland salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
peristalsis rhythmic contractions of the tubes of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and other tubular structures. moves the contents through the GI tract at different rates: stomach, 0.5 to 2 hours; small intestine, 2 to 6 hours; and colon, 6 to 72 hours
pharynx throat, the common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
portal vein large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
protease enzyme that digests protein
pulp soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
pyloric sphincter ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, neat the duodenum. it is normally closed, but opens when a wave of peristalsis passes over it
pylorus distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
rectum last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
rugae ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
saliva digestive juice produced by salivary glands
salivary glands paratid, sublingual, and submandibular glands
sigmoid colon fourth and last S-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum; empties into the rectum
sphincter circulating ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
stomach muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus
triglycerides large fat molecules composed of three parts fatty acid and one part glycerol
uvula soft tissue hanging from the middle of the soft palate
villi microscopic projections in the wall of the small intestine that absorb nutrients into the bloodstream
Created by: vikingmedterm