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Ch.28 Persian Wars

History Alive! The Ancient World ©2004 TCI

What is the area where the Persian empire started called today? Iran
What are allies? States that agree to help each other against a common enemy.
King Darius divided the Persian Empire into provinces. How many and what were they called? 20 satrapies
What marked the beginning of the Greek-Persian Wars, and when was it? The Ionian Revolt, in 499 B.C.E.
What did the Persians force the Ionians to do? Name two things. Pay tributes and serve in the army.
Who did the Ionians ask for help against the Persians? Mainland Greece (Athens responded)
What did the Persians do to punish the Ionians after defeating them? They destroyed the city of Miletus and sold some people into slavery.
What presents did King Darius request from mainland Greece, and why? Greek earth and water, to represent Greeks' acceptance of Persian Rule.
How did the Greeks respond to King Darius' request for presents? They threw the King's messengers into pits and wells (to get their own Greek earth and water).
What kind of military force did King Darius send to Greece? Foot soldiers and cavalry.
What is a cavalry? Military force mounted on horseback.
What was the first major battle of the Greek-Persian Wars, and when was it fought? The Battle of Marathon, in 490 B.C.E.
What Greek army fought the Persians at the Battle of Marathon, and who led them? The Athenians, led by General Miltiades
Who was Pheidippides? An Athenian runner who ran for two days and two nights to ask Spartans to help defend against King Darius' army.
Why didn't the Spartans help at the Battle of Marathon? They were celebrating a religious festival and said they couldn't leave Sparta until the next full moon.
Who won the Battle of Marathon? The Greeks
Who succeeded Darius as King of the Persian Empire? His son, King Xerxes
How many soldiers were in King Xerxes' army? Over 180,000
What is the Hellespont? A long, narrow body of water between Europe and Asia.
How did Xerxes' army cross the Hellespont? By walking over two bridges made by roping hundreds of boats together.
What was Xerxes' first major battle against the Greeks, and when was it fought? The Battle of Thermopylae, in 480 B.C.E.
What Greek army fought against the Persians at Thermopylae, and who led them? The Spartans, led by King Leonidas
Describe the geographical characteristics of Thermopylae. It's a narrow pass between the mountains and the sea.
Who won the Battle of Thermopylae? The Persians.
What were the two main reasons the Persians beat the Spartans at Thermopylae? A traitor showed them a secret path through the mountains; and they had a LOT more soldiers.
How many Spartan soldiers went to Thermopylae? How many stayed to the end? 6,0000-7,000, then 300
Why did Spartan soldiers leave the battle at Thermopylae? King Leonidas knew his army couldn't defeat the Persians so he ordered most of his troops to escape.
What happened to the Spartan soldiers who stayed at Thermopylae? They fought bravely with weapons and their bare hands until they were all killed.
Where did the Persian army go after the battle at Thermopylae? Athens.
What happened when Xerxes' army went to Athens? They burned it to the ground within two weeks.
Where was the major naval battle of the Persian Wars? Salamis
Who led the Greek navy at Salamis? Themistocles
Describe the geographical characteristics of Salamis. It's on a narrow channel of water between the Greek islands and mainland.
Why did Themistocles want to fight the Persian navy at Salamis? Because the narrow waterway would make it difficult for the Persians to maneuver their ships.
How did Themistocles get the Persian navy to enter the narrow channel of water at Salamis? He sent a secret message to Xerxes that he wanted to change sides, and that half the Greek sailors would surrender.
What did the Greek navy do after surrounding the Persian ships at Salamis? They rammed them and crushed their hulls.
How many ships did the Persians lose at Salamis? 300
How many ships did the Greeks lose at Salamis? 40
Who won the Battle at Salamis? The Greeks
Where did the Persians go after the Battle at Salamis? Xerxes retreated, but left half of his army in Greece.
What was the final major battle of the Persian wars? The Battle of Plataea, in 479 B.C.E.
How long did the Greek-Persian Wars last? Twenty years
Created by: mushijima