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Ch. 8 & 9

Medical & Scientific Terms

ch. 8 & Ch. 9 (front)(back)
complete blood count (CBC) the most common laboratory blood test performed as a screen of general health or for diagnostic purposes
CD4 cell count a measure of the number of CD4 cells (a subset of T lymphocytes) in the blood; used in monitoring the course of HIV and timing the treatment of AIDS; the normal adult ranges is 600-1,500 cells)
white blood count (WBC) a count of the number of white blood cels per cubic millimeter obtained by manual or automated laboratory methods
red blood count (RBC) a count of the number of red blood cells per cubic millimeter obtained by manual or automated laboratory methods la
hemoglobin (HGB or Hgb) a test to determine the blood level of hemoglobin (expressed in grams)
hematocrit (HCT of Hct) a measurement of the percetage of packed red blood cells in a given volume of blood
blood indices calculations of RBC, HGB, and HCT results to determine the average size, hemoglobin concentration, and content of red blood celss for classification of anemia
mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin (MCH) a calculation of the content in weight of hemoglobin in the average red blood cell using HGB and RBC results: MCH = HGB/RBC
mean corpuscular (cell) hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) a calculation of the average hemoglobin concentration in each red blood cell using HGB and HCT results: MCHC = HGB/HCT
differential count a determination of the number of each type of white blood cell (leukocyte) sen on a stained blood smear; each type is counted and reported as a percentage of the total examined
red cell morphology as part of identifying and counting the WBC's, the condition of the size and shape of the red blood cells in the background of the smeared slide is noted (e.g., anisocytosis, poikilocytosis)
platelet count (PLT) a calculation of the number of thrombocytes in the blood: normal range 150,000-450,000/cubic milimeters
erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ERS) a timed test to measure the rate at which red blood cells settle or fall through a given volume of plasma
partial thromboplastin time (PTT) a test to determine coagulation defects such as platelet disorders
thromboplastin a substance present in tissues, platelets, and leukocytes that is necessary for coagulation
prothrombin time (PT) a test to measure the activity of prothrombin in the blood
prothrombin a protein substance in the blood that is essential to the clotting process
venipuncture/phlebotomy and incision into or puncture of a vein to withdraw blood for testing
bone marrow aspiration a needle aspiration of bone marrow tissue for pathological examination
bone marrow biopsy a pathological examination of bone marrow tissue
lymphangiogram an x-ray image of a lymph node or vessel taken after injection of a contrast medium
computed tomography (CT) full-boy x-ray CT images are used to detect tumors and cancers such as lymphoma
positron emission tomography (PET) radionuclide scans, especially of the whole body, are useful in determining the recurrence of cancers or to measure response to therapy; commonly used in evaluating lymphoma
bone marrow transplant the transplantation of healthy bone marrow from a compatible donor to a diseased recipient to stimulate blood cell production
lymphadenectomy the removal of a lymph node
lymphadenotomy an incision into a lymph node
lymph node dissection the removal of possible cancer-carrying lymph nodes for pathological examination
splenectomy the removal of the spleen
thymectomy the removal of the thymus glad
blood transfusion the introduction of blood products into the circulation of a recipient whose blood volume is reduced or deficient in some manner
autologous blood blood donated by, and stored for, a patient for future personal use (e.g., upcoming surgery)
homologous blood blood voluntarily donated by any person for transfusion to a compatible recipient
blood component therapy the transfusion of specific blood components such as packed red blood cells, platelets, and plasma
crossmatching a method of matching a donor's blood to the recipient by mixing a sample in a test tube to determine compatibility
chemotherapy the treatment of malignancies, infections, and other diseases with chemical agents that destroy selected cells or impair their ability to reproduce
immunotherapy the use of biological agents to prevent or treat disease by stimulating the body's own defense mechanisms; as seen in the treatment of AIDS, cancer, and allergy
plasmapheresis the removal of plasma from the body with separation and extraction of specific elements (such as platelets) followed by reinfusion (apheresis = a withdrawal)
anticoagulant a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
hemostatic a drug that stops the flow of blood within the vessels
vasoconstrictor a drug that causes a narrowing of blood vessels, decreasing blood flow
vasodilator a drug that causes dilation of blood vessels, increasing blood flow
alveol/o alveolus (air sac)
bronch/o bronchi/o bronchus (airway)
bronchiol/o bronchiole (little airway)
capn/o carb/o carbon dioxide
laryng/o larynx (voice box)
lob/o lobe (a portion)
nas/o rhin/o nose
or/o mouth
ox/o oxygen
palat/o palate
pharyng/o pharynx (throat)
phren/o diaphragm (also mind)
pleur/o pleura
pneum/o pneumon/o air or lung
pulmon/o lung
sinus/o sinus (cavity)
spir/o breathing
thorac/o pector/o steth/o chest
tonsill/o tonsil (almond)
trache/o trachea (windpipe)
uvul/o uvula
-pnea breathing
nose structure that warms. moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract and that houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell
sinuses air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity
palate partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate
pharynx throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx
nasopharynx part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages
oropharynx central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis
laryngopharynx lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and the esophagus
tonsils oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion- also called palatine tonsils
adenoid lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose-also called pharyngeal tonsil
uvula small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its grape-like shape
larynx voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords
glottis opening between the vocal cords in the larynx
epiglottis lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the arway
trachea windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina where it splits into the right and left bronchus
bronchial tree branched airways that lead from the trachea to the alveoli
right and left bronchus two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs
bronchioles progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways
alveoli thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases
lungs two spongy organs, located in teh thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration
lobes subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right
pleura membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura)
pleural cavity potential space between the viscerla and parietal layers of the pleura
diaphragm muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down
mediastinum partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (that contain the right and left lungs) and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland
mucous membranes thin sheets of tissue that line the respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid (sticky) fluid
cilia hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, that provide upward movement of mucus cell secretions
parenchyma functional tissues of any organ such as the tissues fo the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs that perform respiration
eupnea normal breathing
bradypnea slow breathing
tachypnea fast breathing
hypopnea shallow breathing
hyperpnea deep breathing
dyspnea difficulty breathing
apnea inability to breathe
orthopnea ability to breathe only in an upright position
Cheyne-Stokes respiration pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea
crackles/rales popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli-occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis
wheezes/rhonchi high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway-occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema
stridor a high-pitched crowing sound that is a sign of obstruction in the upper airway (trachea or larynx)
caseous necrosis degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance (characteristics of tuberculosis)
dysphonia hoarseness (phon/o=voice or sound)
epistaxis nosebleed (epi=upon; stazo=to drip)
expectoration coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs
sputum material expelled from the lungs by coughing
hemoptysis coughing up and spitting out blood originating in the lungs (ptysis=to spit)
hypercapnia/hypercarbia excessive level of carbon dioxide in teh blood (capno=smoke; carbo=coal)
hyperventilation excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hepocapnia
hypoventilation deficient movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypercpnia
hypoxemia deficient amount of oxygen in the blood
hypoxia deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells
obstructive lung disorder condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs
restrictive lung disorder condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs
pulmonary edema fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli
pulmonary infiltrate density on an x-ray representing solid material within the air spaces of the lungs, usually indicating inflammatory changes
rhinorrhea thin, watery discharge from the nose
asthma panting; obstructive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swellin gof their mucous membrane, characterized by paroxysmal (sudden, periodic) attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough
atelectasis collapse of lung tissue (alveoli) (atele=imperfect)
bronchiectasis abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucous
bronchitis inflammation of the bronchi
bronchogenic carcinoma lung cancer
bronchospasm constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle
emphysema obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange (emphysan=to inflate)
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema
cystic fibrosis inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infection
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheobronchitis/croup inflammation of the upper airways with swelling that creates a funnel-shaped elongation of tissue causing a distinct "seal bark" cough
laryngospasm spasm of laryngeal muscles causing constriction
nasal polyposis presence of numerous polyps in the nose (a polyp is a tumor on a stalk)
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx
pleural effusion accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity
empyema/pyothorax accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
hemothorax accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity
pleuritis/pleurisy inflammation of the pleura
pnemoconiosis chronic restrictive pulmonary desiease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts such as coal, asbestos (asbestosis), or silicone (silicosis) (conio=dust)
pneumonia inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals
pneumocystis/pneumonia pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism-a common opportunistic infection seen in those with positive human immunodeficiency virus
pneumothorax air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall
pneumohemothorax air and blood in the pleural cavity
pulmonary embolism (PE) occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot
pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions (caseous necrosis)
sinusitis inflammation of the sinuses
sleep apnea periods of breathing cessation (10seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring
tonsillitis acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils
upper respiratory infection (URI) infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi
arterial blood gases (ABGs) analysis of arterial blood o determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases
pH a measure of blood acidity or alkalinity
PaO2 partial pressure of oxygen measuring the amount of oxygen in the blood
PaCO2 partial pressure of carbon dioxide measuring teh amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
endoscopy examination of a body cavity with a flexible endoscope to examine within for diagnostic or treatment purposes
bronchoscopy use of a flexible endoscope, called a bronchoscope, to examine the airways
nasopharyngoscopy use of a flexible endoscope to examine the nasal passages and the pharynx (throat) to diagnose structural abnormalities such as obstructions, growths, and cancers
lung biopsy (Bx) removal of small piece of lung tissue for pathological examination
lung scan two-part nuclear scan of teh lungs to detect abnormalities of perfusion (blood flow) or ventilation (respiration), commonly called a V/Q (ventilation/perfusion) scan
ventilation scan made as the patient breathes radioactive material into the airways
perfusion scan made after radioactive material is injected into the blood and circulates to the lungs
magnetic resonance image (MRI) nonionizing image of the lung to visualize lung lesions
polysomnography (PSG) recording of various aspects of sleep (eye and muscle movements, respiration, brain wave patterns) for diagnosis of sleep disorders (somn/o=sleep)
auscultation to listen; physical examination method of listening to the sounds within the body with the aid of a stethoscope, such as auscultation of teh chest for heart and lung sounds
percussion physical examination method of tapping over the body to elicit vibrations and sounds to estimate the size, border, or fluid content of a cavity such as the chest
pulmonary function testing (PFT) direct and indirect measurements of lung volumes and capacities
spirometry portion of pulmonary function testing that is a direct measurement of lung volume and capacity
tidal volume (TV of Vsubt) amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration
vital capacity (VC) amount of air exhaled after a maximal inspiration
peak flow (PF) peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) measure of the fastest flow of exhaled air after a maximal inspiration
pulse oximetry noninvasive method of estimating the percentage of oxygen saturation in the blood using an oximeter with a specialized probe attached to the skin at a site of arterial pulsation, commonly the finger; used to monitor hypoxemia
radiology x-ray imaging
chest x-ray (CRX) x-ray image of the chest to visualize the lungs
computed tomography computed x-ray imaging of teh head is used to visualize the structures of the nose and sinuses; CT of the thorax is used to detect lesions in the lung
pulmonary angiography x-ray of the blood vessels of the lungs after injection of contrast material
adenoidectomy excision of the adenoids
lobectomy removal of a lobe of a lung
nasal polypectomy removal of a nasal polyp
pneumonectomy removal of an entire lung
thoracentesis puncture for aspiration of the chest
thoracoplasty repair of the chest involving fixation of the ribs
thoracoscopy endoscopic examination of the pleural cavity using a thoracoscope
thoracostomy creation of an opening in the chest usually for insertion of a tube
thoracotomy incision into the chest
tonsillectomy excision of the palatine tonsils
tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T & A) excision of the tonsils and adenoids
tracheostomy creation of an opening in the trachea, most often to insert a tube
tracheotomy incision into the trachea
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) method of artificial respiration and slosed-chest massage used to restore breathing and cardiac output after cardiac arrest
continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device that pumps a constant pressurized flow of air through the nasal passages, commonly used during sleep to prevent airway closure in sleep apnea
endotracheal intubation passage of a tube into the trachea via the nose of mouth to open the airway for delivering gas mixtures to the lungs (e.g., oxygen, anesthetics, or air)
incentive spirometry common postoperative breathing therapy using a specially designed spirometer to encourage the patient to inhale and repeatedly sustain an inspiratory volume to exercise the lungs and prevent pulmonary complications
mechanical ventilation mechanical method performed by a respiratory therapist to provide assisted breathing using a ventilator
antibiotic drug that kills of inhibits the growth of microorganisms
anticoagulant drug that dissolves, or prevents the formation of, thrombi or emboli in the blood vessels (e.g., heparin)
antihistamine a drug that neutralizes or inhibits the effects of histamine
histamine compound in the body that is released by injured cells in allergic reaction, inflammation, etc., causing constriction of bronchial smooth muscle, dilation of blood vessels, etc.
bronchodilator drug that dilates the muscular walls of the bronchi
expectorant drug that breaks up mucus and promotes coughing
Created by: ashbrack