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Chapter 6 Med Term

Musculoskeletal system

ankyl/o crooked or stiff
arthr/o joint(articulation)
articul/o joint(articulation)
brachi/o arm
cervic/o neck
chondr/o cartilage
cost/o rib
crani/o skull
dactyl/o digit(finger or toe)
fasci/o fascia(a band)
femor/o femur
fibr/o fiber
kyph/o humpback
lei/o smooth
lord/o bent
lumb/o loin(lower back)
myel/o bone marrow or spinal cord
my/o myos/o muscul/o muscle
oste/o bone
patell/o knee cap
pelv/i pelv/o hip bone or pelvic cavity
radi/o radius
rhabd/o rod shaped or striated (skeletal)
sarc/o flesh
scoli/o twisted
Digit Latin Term derived from finger counting
Digitalis heart drug madde from foxglove plant also known as ladie's fingers
spondyl/o vertebr/o vertebra
stern/o sternum(breastbone)
ten/o tend/o tendin/o tendon(to stretch)
thorac/o chest
ton/o tone or tension
uln/o ulna
Skeleton Greek word meaning dried up occured in modern English in 1578
Elbow Latin term ell-old measure of cloth from elbow to the fingers. Boga was bending or bow
Musculoskeletal system provides support and gives shape to the body
skeleton gives structure to the body by providing a framework of bones and cartilage bones store calcium and minerals and produce blood cells in the marrow
muscle covers bones where they hinge(articulate) and supply forces that make movement possible also provide protective covering for internal organs and produce body heat
appendicular skeleton bones of shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities
axial skeleton bones of skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyoid(u-shaped bone lying at the base of the tongue)
bone specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes (bone cells) forming the skeleton
compact bone tightly solid, strong bone tissue resistant to bending
spongy (cancellous) bone mesh-like bone tissue containing marrow and fine branching canals through which blood vessels run.
Long bones bones of arms and legs
short bones bones of wrists and ankles
flat bones bones of ribs, shoulder blades,pelvis and skull
irregular bones bones of vertebrae and face
sesamoid bones round bones found near joints (e.g., patella)
epiphysis wide ends of a long bone(physis=growth)
diaphysis shaft of a long bone
metaphysis growth zone between epiphysis and diaphysis during development of a long bone
endosteum membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone
medullary cavity cavity within the shaft of the long bones filled with bone marrow
bone marrow soft connective tissue within the medullary cavities of bones
red bone marrow found in cavities of most bones in infants;functions in formation of red blood cells, some white blood cells and platelets.In adults red bone marrow found most often in the flat bones
yellow bone marrow gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones, functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in formation of blood cells
periosteum a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone
articular catrilage a gristle-like substance found on bones where they articulate
articulation a joint; the point where two bones come together
bursa a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
disk(disc) a flat plate-like structure composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue found between the vertebrae to reduce friction
nucleus pulposus the soft, fibrocartilaginous, central portion of intevertebral disk
ligament a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone
synovial membrane membrane lining the capsule of a joint
synovial fluid lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane
ankle Greek word Ank meaning bend or angle
bursa Latin term for purse
muscle tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movement of an organ or partof the body
striated (skeletal)muscle voluntary striated muscleattached to the skeleton
smooth muscle involuntary muscle found in internal organs
cardiac muscle muscle of the heart
origin of a muscle muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contracts
insertion of a muscle muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts
tendon a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone
fascia a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports and seperates muscle
Anatomical position and term of reference terms with specific meanings to refer to body positions, directions and planes.
anatomical position assumes teh body is standing upright (erect) facing forward with feet pointing forward and slightly apart, arms at side with palms facing forward
planes 3 different imaginary lines dividing the body in half, forming body planes
positional and directional terms used to indicate the location or direction of body parts in respect to each other
coronal (frontal) plane Body Plane vertical division into front(anterior) and back(posterior) portions
sagittal plane Body plane vertical division of the body into right and left portions
tranverse plane body plane horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions
anterior (A) (ventral) front of the body
posterior (P) (dorsal) back of the body
anterior-posterior (AP) from front to back ;commonly associated with the direction of an x-ray beam
posterior-anterior (PA) from back to front;commonly associated with the direction of an x-ray beam
superior(cephalic) situated above another structure, toward the head
inferior(caudal) situated below another structure , away from the head
fascia Latin word for band or bandage
proximal toward the beginning or origin of a structure [e.g., proximal aspect of the femur (thigh bone) is the area at the end of the bone near the knee]
medial toward the middle (midline)
lateral toward the side
axis line that runs through the center of the body or a body part
erect normal standing position
decubitus lying down, especially in bed
lateral decubitus lying on the side (decumbo=to lie down)
prone lying face down and flat
recumbent lying down
supine horizontal recumbent; lying flat on the back-"on the spine"
flexion bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased
extension straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased
abduction movement away from the body
adduction movement towards the body
rotation circular movement around an axis
eversion turning outward, i.e. of a foot
inversion turning inward, i.e. of a foot
supination turning upward or forward of the palmar surface (palm or hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot)
pronation turning downward or backward of the palmar surface(palm of the hand)or plantar surface (sole of the foot)
dorsiflexion bending of the foot or the toes upward
plantar flexion bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground
range of motion total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements, i.e., ability to flex, extend, abduct, or adduct;measured in degrees
goniometer instrument used to measure joint angles (gonio=angle)
arthralgia joint pain
atrophy shrinking of tissue such as muscle
crepitation, crepitus grating sound made by movement of some joints or broken bones
exostosis a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage
flaccid flabbby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone
hypertrophy increase in the size of tissue such as muscle
hypotonia reduced muscle tone or tension
myalgia myodynia muscle pain
ostealgia osteodynia bone pain
rigor or rigidity stiffness;stiff muscle
spasm drawing in;involuntary contraction of muscle
spastic uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles causing stiff and akward movements resembles spasm
tetany tension;prolonged continuous muscle contraction
tremor shaking;rythmic muscular movement
ankylosis stiff joint condition
arthritis inflammation of the joints charchterized by pain, swelling, redness, warmth and limitaion of motion (more than 100 types)
osteoarthritis (OA) most common form of arthritis that affects weight bearing joints(knee and hip)charachterized by erosion of articular cartilage
DJD degenerative joint disease
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) most crippling form of arthritis charachterized by a chronic, systemic inflammation most often affecting joints and synovial membranes (especially in hands and feet) causing ankylosis(stiff joints) and deformity
gouty arthritis acute attacks of arthritis usually in a single joint (especially the great toe) caused by hyperuricemia (an excessive level of uric acid in the blood)
gout Latin word meaning drop
bony necrosis // sequestrum dead bone tissue from loss of blood supply such as can occur after a fracture(sequestrum=something laid aside)
bunion swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by inflammation of the bursa
bursitis inflammation of a bursa
carpal tunnel syndrome condition that results from compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel at the wrist, characterized by pain, numbness, tingling in wrist and fingers and weak grip usually result of cumulative trauma of surrounding tendons
chondromalacia softening of the cartilage
epiphysitis inflammation of the epiphyseal regions of the long bone
fracture broken or cracked bone
closed fracture broken bone with no open wound
open fracture compound fracture, broken bone with an open wound
simple fracture a nondisplaced fracture involving one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair. e.g.hairline Fx, stress Fx, or crack)
complex fracture a displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair
fracture line line made by broken bone (oblique spiral or transverse)
comminuted fracture broken in many little pieces
greenstick fracture bending and incomplete break of a bone-most often seen in children
herniated disk or disc protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleaus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root
myeloma bone marrow tumor
myositis inflammation of muscle
myoma muscle tumor
leiomyoma smooth muscle tumor
leiomyosarcoma malignant smooth muscle tumor
rhabdomyoma skeletal muscle tumor
rhabdomyosarcoma malignant skeletal muscle tumor
muscular dystrophy a category of genetically transmitted diseases charcterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles (duchenne's is most common)
osteoma bone tumor
osteosarcoma type of malignant bone tumor
osteomalacia disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and Vitamin D deficiency
rickets osteomalacia in children (causes bone derformity)
osteomyelitis infection of bone and marrow causing inflammation
osteoporosis condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity causing bones to become brittle and liable to fracture(porosis=passage)
kyphosis abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humpback condition)
lordosis abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (swayback condition)
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (S-shaped curve)
spondylolisthesis forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra (listesis=slipping)
spondylosis stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae due to joint degeneration
sprain injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without dislocation or fracture
subluxation a partial dislocation (luxation=dislocation)
tendinitis // tendonitis inflammation of a tendon
electromyogram (EMG) neurodiagnostic graphic record of the electrical activity of muscle at rest and during contraction to diagnose neuromusculoskeletal disorders(muscular dystrophy)usually performed by a neurologist
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nonionizing imaging techniques using magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves used to visualize anatomical structures joints, tendons, vertebraes
nuclear medicine//radionuclide organ imaging ionizing imaging technique using radioactive isotopes
bone scan radionuclide image of bone tissue to detect tumor, malignanacy, etc.
radiography (X-ray) x-ray imaging; an ionizing technique used in orthopedics to visualize the extremeties, ribs, shoulders, back and joints
Willhem Rotegen discovered x-rays in 1895. st of his wife's hand.
arthrogram an x-ray of a joint taken after an injection of a contrast medium
diskogram an x-ray of an intervertebral disk after injection of a contrast medium
dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) an x-ray scan that measures bone mineral density of spine and extremities to diagnose osteporosis, determine Fx risk and monitor treatment
Computed Tomography (CT) Computed Axial Tomography (CAT) specialized x-ray procedure that produces cross sectional images that are processed by a computer to form 2 or 3 dimensional images
Sonography ultrasound imaging; a nonionizing technique useful in orthopedics to visualize muscles, ligaments, used for moving images on a monitor
amputation partial or complete removal of a limb (AKA=above knee amutation) (BKA=Below knee amputation)
arthrocentesis puncture for aspiration of a joint
arthrodesis binding or fusing of joint surfaces
arthroplasty repair or reconstruction of a joint
arthroscopy procedure using an arthroscope to examine diagnose and repair a joint from within
bone grafting transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair a skeletal defect
bursectomy excision of a bursa
myoplasty repair of a muscle
open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF) of a Fx internal surgical repair of a Fx by bringing bones back into alignment and fixing them into place, often utilizing plates, screws, pins, etc.
osteoplasty repair of bone
osteotomy incision into bone
spondylosyndesis spinal fusion
tenotomy division by incision of a tendon to repair a deformity caused by shortening of a muscle
closed reduction, external fixation of a Fx external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment along with application of an external device to protect and hold bone in place while healing
casting using a stiff, solid dressing around a limb to immobilize during healing
splinting use of a rigid device to immobilize or restrain a broken bone or injured part. less support than cast, accomodates swelling easier
traction (Tx) application of a pulling force to a Fx'd bone or dislocated joint to maintain proper position during healing
closed reduction, percutaneous fixation of a Fx external manipulation of a Fx to regain alignment, followed by insertion of one or more pins through the skin to maintain position, ofetn includes external device called a fixator to keep the fracture immobilized during healing
orthosis use of an orthopedic appliance to maintain a bone's position or provide limb support (wrist or knee brace)
physical therapy treatment to rehabilitate patients disabled by illness or injury involving different methods(modalities) such as exercise, hydrotherapy, diathermy and ultrasound
prosthesis an artificial replacement for a diseased or missing body part such as a hip, joint, or limb.
analgesic drug that relieves pain
narcotic potent analgesic that has addictive properties
anti-inflammatory drug that reduces inflammation
antipyretic drug that relieves fever
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) group of drugs with analgesic, anti-inflammatory properties(ibuprofen and aspirin) commonly used to treat arthritis