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USMLE findings

USMLE classical findings & associations

Actinic keratosis Precedes squamous cell carcinoma
Addison's disease Primary adrenocortical deficiency
Albright's syndrome Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia- precocious puberty- café-au-lait spots- short stature- young girls
Albuminocytologic dissociation Guillain-Barre - Increased protein in CSF with only modest increase in cell count
Alport's syndrome Hereditary nephritis with nerve deafness
Anti-basement membrane Ab Goodpasture's
Anti-centromere Ab Scleroderma (CREST)
Anti-dsDNA Ab (aka ANA Ab) SLE - Type III hypersensitivity
Anti-epithelial cell Ab Pemphigus vulgaris
Anti-gliadin Ab Celiac
Anti-histone Ab Drug-induced SLE
Anti-IgG Ab RA
Anti-mitochondrial Ab Primary biliary cirrhosis
Anti-neutrophil Ab Vasculitis
Anti-platelet Ab ITP
Arachnodactyly Marfan's
Argyll Robertson pupil Tertiary syphilis (Prostitute pupil) - accomodates but does not react
Arnold-Chiari malformation Cerebellar tonsillar herniation
Aschoff bodies Rheumatic fever
Atrophy of the mamillary bodies Wernicke's encephalopathy
Auer rods AML - Promyelocytic
Autosplenectomy Sickle cell
Babinski's sign UMN lesion
Baker's cyst in popliteal fossa Rheumatoid arthritis
"Bamboo spine" on x-ray Ankylosing spondylitis
Bartter's syndrome Hyperreninemia
Basophilic stippling of RBCs Lead poisoning
Becker's muscular dystrophy Defective dystrophin
Becker's muscular dystrophy Less than Duchenne's
Bell's palsy LMN CN VII palsy
Bence-Jones proteins Multiple myeloma- Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia - MM = kappa or lambda Ig light chains; WM = IgM
Berger's disease IgA nephropathy
Bernard-Soulier disease Platelet adhesion defect
Bilateral hilar adenopathy + uveitis Sarcoid
Birbeck granules on EM Langerhan's cell histiocytosis (Histiocytosis X) - Tennis racquets
Birbeck granules on EM (diseases) Eosinophilic granuloma- Hand-Schuller-Christian Disease- Letterer-Siwe disease
Bloody tap on lumbar puncture Subarachnoid hemorrhage
"Blue bloater" Chronic bronchitis
Blue-domed cysts Fibrocystic change of the breast
Blue sclera Osteogenesis imperfecta
Boot-shaped heart on X-ray RVH- Tet
Bouchard's nodes Osteoarthritis - PIP
Boutonniere deformity RA
Branching rods in oral infection Actinomyces israelii
"Brown tumor" of bone Hemorrhage - Due to Hyperparathyroidism- osteitis fibrosa cystica (von Recklinghousen's disease)
Bruton's disease X-linked agammaglobulinemia
Budd-Chiari syndrome Posthepatic venous thrombosis
Buerger's disease Small/medium artery vasculitis
Burkitt's lymphoma 8;14 - EBV
Burton's lines Lead poisoning
C-ANCA Wegener's
Café-au-lait spots on skin Neurofibromatosis
Caisson disease Gas emboli
Calf pseudohypertrophy Duchenne
Call-Exner bodies Granulosa-theca cell tumor of the ovary
Cardiomegaly with apical atrophy Chagas disease
Cerebriform nuclei Mycosis fungoides (Sezary syndrome) - Cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma
Chagas disease Trypanosoma Cruzi
Chancre Primary Syphilis - painless lesion
Chancroid Haemophilus ducreyi - painful lesion
Charcot's triad MS--nystagmus- intention tremor- scanning speech; Cholangitis--jaundice- RUQ pain- fever
Charcot-Leyden crystals Bronchial Asthma - Eosinophil membranes
Chediak-Higashi disease Phagocyte deficiency
Cherry-red spot on macula Tay-Sachs- niemann-Pick- central retinal artery occlusion
Cheyne-Stokes respirations Central apnea in CHF and inc. intracranial pressure
"Chocolate cysts" Endometriosis - frequently both ovaries
Chronic atrophic gastritis Gastric carcinoma
Chvostek's sign Hypocalcemia - facial muscle spasm upon tapping
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina DES exposure in utero
Clue cells Gardnerella vaginitis
Codman's triangle on x-ray Osteosarcoma
Cold agglutinins Mycoplasma pneumoniae; Mono
Cold intolerance Hypothyroidism
Condylomata lata Secondary syphilis - infectious pink or grey patches on skin
Continuous machinery murmur PDA
Cori's disease Debranching enzyme deficiency
Cotton-wool spots Chronic HTN
Cough- conjuncitivitis- coryza- & fever Measles
Councilman bodies Hepatitis - toxic or viral
Cowdry type A bodies Herpesvirus
Crescents in Bowman's capsule Goodpasture
Crigler-Najjar syndrome Congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Curling's ulcer Acute gastric ulcer associated with severe burns
Currant-jelly sputum Klebsiella
Curschmann's spirals Bronchial asthma - whorled mucus plugs
Cushing's ulcer Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury
D-Dimer DIC
Depigmentation of neurons in substantia nigra Parkinson's - basal ganglia disorder - rigidity/resting tremor/bradykinesia
Dermatitis- demetia- diarrhea Pellagra - Niacin (B# deficiency)
Diabetes Insipidus + exophthalmos + skull lesions Hand-Schuller-Christian disease
Dog or cat bite Pasteurella multocida
Donovan bodies Granuloma inguinale
Dressler's syndrome Post-MI fibrinous pericarditis
Dubin-Johnson syndrome Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia - black liver
Duchenne's muscular dystrophy Deleted dystrophin gene - X-linked recessive
Eburnation Osteoarthritis - bones become dense and polished (resembling ivory)
Edwards' syndrome Trisomy 18 (rocker-bottom feet - low set ears - heart disease)
Eisenmenger's syndrome Late cyanosis shunt - Reversal of L-->R shunt
Elastic skin Ehlers-Danlos
Erythema chronicum migrans Lyme disease
Fanconi's syndrome Proximal tubular reabsorption defect
Fat - female - forty - and fertile Acute cholecystitis
Fatty liver Alcoholism
Ferruginous bodies Asbestos
Gardner's syndrome Colon polyps with osteomas and soft tissue tumors
Gaucher's disease Glucocerebrosidase deficiency
Ghon complex Primary TB
Gilbert's disease Benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Glanzmann's thrombasthenia Defect in plt aggregation
Goodpasture Anti-BM
Gower's maneuver Duchenne's (Pt uses arms to help legs pick self up off floor)
Guillain-Barre syndrome Idiopathic polyneuritis
"Hair-on-end" appearance on X-ray B-thalassemia & sickle cell (Extramedullary hematopoiesis)
Hand-Schuler-Christian disease Chronic progressive histiocytosis
HbF Thalassemia major
HbS Sickle cell
hCG elevated Choriocarcinoma- hydatidiform mole
Heberden's nodes Osteoarthritis - DIP
Heinz bodies G6PD deficiency
Henoch-Schonlein purpura Hypersensitivity vasculitis - Assoc with hemorrhagic uticaria and URIs
Heterophil Ab Mono (EBV)
High-output cardiac failure (dilated cardiomyopathy) Wet beriberi (Thiamine B1 deficiency)
HLA-B27 Reiter's syndrome- ankylosing spondylitis
Homer-Wright rosettes Neuroblastoma
Honeycomb lung on X-ray Interstitial fibrosis
Horner's syndrome Ptosis- miosis- anhidrosis
Howell-Jolly bodies Splenectomy
Huntington's disease Caudate degeneration - Auto dominant
Hyperphagia + hypersexuality + hyperorality + hyperdocility Kluver-Bucy sundrome - problem with amygdala
Hyperpigmentation of skin Addison's disease (primary adrenal insufficiency)
Hypersegmented neutrophils Macrocytic anemia
HTN + hypokalemia Conn's syndrome
Hypochromic- microcytic anemia Iron-deficiency anemia- lead poisoning
Increased AFP in amniotic fluid/maternal serum Anencephaly/spina bifida
Increased uric acid levels Gout- Lesch-Nyhan syndrome- myeloproliferative disorders- loop and thiazide diuretics
Intussusception Adenovirus - how? Hyperplasia of peyer's patches
Janeway lesions Endocarditis
Jarish-Herxheimer reaction Syphilis - due to overaggressive treatment of an asymptomatic pt --> rapid lysis (blank)
Job's syndrome Neutrophil chemotaxis abnormality
Kaposi's Sarcoma AIDS in MSM
Kartagener's syndrome Dynein defect
Keyser-Fleischer rings High free copper (decreased ceruloplasmin) - Wilson's disease
Keratin pearls Squamous cell carcinoma
Kimmelstiel-Wilson nodules Diabetic nephropathy
Kluver-Bucy syndrome Bilateral amygdala lesions
Koilocytes HPV
Koplik spots Measles
Krukenberg tumor Gastric adenocarcinoma with ovarian metastases
Kussmaul hyperpnea Diabetic ketoacidosis
Lens dislocation + aortic dissection + joint hyperflexibility Marfan's - Fibrillin gene defect
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome HGPRT - Nucleotide salvage pathway defect
Lewy bodies Parkinson's
Libman-Sacks disease Endocarditis - Assoc with SLE
Lines of Zahn Arterial thrombus
Lisch nodules Neurofibromatosis (von Recklinghausen's disease)
Low serum ceruloplasmin Wilson's disease
Lucid interval Epidural hematoma
"Lumpy-bumpy" glomeruli on immunofluorescence Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Lytic bone lesions on X-ray Multiple Myeloma
Mallory bodies Alcoholic liver disease
Mallory-Weiss syndrome Esophagogastric lacerations
McArdle's disease Muscle phosphorylase deficiency
McBurney's sign Appendicitis
MLF syndrome (INO) MS
Monoclonal Ab spike Multiple Myeloma- MGUS- Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia - Called "M protein" - IgG and IgA elevated
Myxedema Hypothyroidism
Necrotizing vasculitis (lungs) and necrotizing glomerulonephritis Wegener's and Goodpasture's (hemoptysis and glomerular disease)
Needle-shaped- negatively birefringent crystals Gout
Negri bodies Rabies
Nephritis + cataracts + hearing loss Alport's
Neurofibrillary tangles Alzheimer's
Niemann-Pick disease Sphingomyelinase deficiency
No lactation postpartum Sheehan's syndrome (pit. Infarct)
Nutmeg liver CHF
Occupational exposure to asbestos Malignant mesothelioma
"Orphan Annie" nuclei Papillary carcinoma of the thyroid
Osler's nodes Endocarditis
Owl's eye CMV
Painless jaundice Pancreatic cancer (head)
Palpable purpura on legs & buttocks Henoch-Schonlein purpura
P-ANCA Polyarteritis Nodosa
Pancoast's tumor Superior sulcus tumor (bronchogenic apical tumor) - Horner's syndrome
Pannus Rheumatoid arthritis
Parkinson's Nigrostriatal dopamine depletion
Periosteal elevation on X-ray Pyogenic osteomyelitis
Peutz-Jeghers syndrome Benign polyposis
Peyronie's disease Penile fibrosis
Philadelphia chromosome CML - 9:22- bcr-abl
Pick bodies Pick's disease
Pick's disease Progressive dementia- similar to Alzheimer's
"Pink puffer" Emphysema
"Pink puffer" Centroacinar (smoking)- Panacinar (a-1 antitrypsin def.)
Plummer-vinson syndrome Esophageal webs w/ iron deficiency anemia
Podagra Gout
Podagra Severe pain in MP joint of hallux
Podocyte fusion Minimal change disease
Polyneuropathy- cardiac pathology- and edema Dry beriberi - Thiamine (B1) deficiency
Polyneuropathy preceded by GI/Resp infection Guillain-Barre
Pompe's disease Glucosidase deficiency - Cardiomegaly
Port-wine stain Hemangioma
Positive "anterior drawer" sign ACL injury
Pott's disease Verterbral TB
Pseudopalisade tumor cell arrangement Glioblastoma multiforme
Psudorosettes Ewing's sarcoma
Ptosis- miosis- anhidrosis Horner's syndrome
Rash on palms and soles Secondary syphilis- RMSF
Raynaud's syndrome Recurrent vasospasm in extremities
RBC casts in urine Acute glomerulonephritis
Recurrent pulmonary Pseudomonas and S. Aureus infxns CF
Red urine in the morning Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria
Reed-Sternberg cells Hodgkin's
Increased Reid index Chronic bronchitis
Reinke crystals Leydig cell tumor
Reiter's syndrome Urethritis- conjunctivitis- arthritis
Renal cell carcinoma + cavernous hemagiomas + adenomas von Hippel-Lindau disease
Renal epithelial casts in urine Acute toxic/viral nephrosis
Rhomboid crystals- positively birefringent Pseudogout
Rib notching Coarc
Roth's spots in retina Endocarditis
Rotor's syndrome Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia
Rouleaux formation Multiple myeloma
Russell bodies Multiple myeloma
S3 L-->R shunt (VSD- PDA- ASD)- mitral regurg- LV failure (CHF)
S4 Aortic stenosis- hypertrophic subaortic stenosis
Schiller-duval bodies Yolk sac tumor
Senile plaques Alzheimer's
Sezary syndrome Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma
Sezary syndrome Mycosis fungoides
Sheehan's syndrome Postpartum pituitary necrosis
Shwartzman reaction N. meningitidis
Signet-ring cells Gastric carcinoma
Simian crease Down's
Sipple's syndrome MEN type IIa
Sjogren's syndrome Dry eyes- dry mouth- arthritis
Skip lesions Crohn's
Slapped cheeks Erythema infectiosum (fifth disease) -Parvo
Smith Ag SLE
Smudge cell CLL
Soap bubble on X-ray Giant cell tumor of bone
Spike and dome on EM Membranous glomerulonephritis
Spitz nevus Benign juvenile melanoma
Splinter hemorrhages in fingernails Endocarditis
Starry-sky pattern Burkitt's
"Strawberry tongue" Scarlet fever - Strep pyo
Streak ovaries Turner's
String sign on X-ray Crohn's
Subepithelial humps on EM Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
Suboccipital lymphadenopathy Rubella
Sulfur granules A. Israelii
Swollen gums- bruising- poor wound healing- anemia Scurvy (ascorbic acid (vit C) deficiency) - Hydroxylation of Pro- Lys in collagen synthesis
Systolic ejection murmur (crescendo-decrescendo) Aortic stenosis
t(8;14) Burkitt's - c-myc
t(9;22) CML - bcr-abl; Philadelphia chromosome
t(14;18) Follicular lymphoma - bcl-2
Tabes dorsalis Tertiary syphilis
Tendon xanthomas (clasically achilles) Familial hypercholesterolemia
Thumb sign on lateral X-ray Epiglottitis - HiB
Thyroidization of kidney Chronic bacterial pyelonephritis
Tophi Gout
"Tram-track" appearance on LM Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
Trousseau's sign Visceral cancer- pancreatic adenocarcinoma (migratory thrombophlebitis)- hypocalcemia (carpal spasm)
Virchow's node Left supraclavicular node enlargement from metastatic carcinoma of the stomach
Virchow's triad Due to PE / triad:Blood stasis- endothelial damage- hypercoagulability
von Recklinghausen's disease Neurofibromatosis with café-au-lait spots
von Recklinghausen's disease of bone Osteitis fibrosa cystica - "brown tumor"
Wallenberg's syndrome PICA thrombosis
Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome Adrenal hemorrhage associated with meningococcemia
Waxy casts Chronic end-stage renal disease
WBC casts in urine Acute pyelonephritis
WBCs in urine Acute cystitis
Wermer's syndrome MEN type I
Whipple's disease Malabsorption syndrome caused by Tropheryma whippelii
Wilson's disease Hepatolenticular degeneration
"Wire loop" appearance on LM Lupus nephropathy
"Worst headache of my life" Berry aneurysm - assoc with Adult PCKD
Xanthochromia (CSF) Subarachnoid hemorrhage
Xerostomia + arthritis + keratocunjunctivitis sicca Sjogren's
Zenker's diverticulum Upper GI diverticulum
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Gastrin-secreting tumor
Zollinger-Ellison syndrome Ulcers
Created by: milletbrock