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Nissing AP Ch5

A&P Ch5 Integumentary

Cutaneous Membrane is made up of these two components Epidermis (superficial epithelium) and Dermis (underlying connective tissues)
Name the 3 accessory structures located primarily in the dermis and protruding through the epidermis to the skin surface Hair, Nails, and Exocrine glands
What is the name for the tissue that is deep to the dermis but superficial to deep fascia and organs like muscles and bones. Hypodermis, aka superficial fascia, aka subcutaneous layer of skin
What are the functions of the skin and hypodermis? Protection, excretion, temp control, lipid storage, stimuli detection, D synthesis, production of keratin and melanin
What type of tissue makes up the epidermis Stratified squamous epithelium. Avascular.
What are the body's most abundant epithelial cells, and where are they found? Keratinocytes, 4 layers in thin skin, 5 layers in thick.
In order from the basement membrane, name the skin strata. Stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum (in thick), stratum corneum
Another word for stratum basale stratum germinativum
What are the names of the extensions into the epidermis and dermis that form invisible contours and fingerprints? Epidermal ridges and dermal papillae
Basal, or germinative, cells dominate the stratum basale. They are a special type of cell whose divisions replace superficial keratinocytes called... Stem cells
Merkel cells are found in what skin? Skin lacking hair, they are sensitive to touch.
Above the stratum basale, these cells are named for their pincushion appearance caused by keratinization and remaining desmosomes. Stratum Spinosum
What is the purpose of dendritic/Langerhans cells and where are they? In the Stratum Spinosum, they participate in immune response against microbes and superficial skin cancers.
This layer, superficial to the stratum spinosum, is 3-5 layers of cells that don't divide but make keratin and keratohyalin. Stratum Granulosum
What is keratohyalin? Surrounds keratin fibers, promote dehydration, aggregation, and cross-linking.
This layer has cells that are flattened, densely packed, largely devoid of organelles, and filled with Keratin. What and where is it? Stratum Lucidum, between the S. Granulosum and S. Corneum of thick skin on palms and soles.
The 15-30 superficial layers of keratinized cells form this layer. Also, what is the other name for the formation of a protective superficial layer? Stratum corneum, cornification
How is the dry surface layer of the S. Corneum maintained? Lipid secretions from sebaceous glands
What is insensible perspiration? Unseen, unfelt loss of about 500mL (1pt) of evaporated interstitial fluid.
word meaning excessively dry skin Xerosis
What colors are the pigments Carotene and Melanin, and where do we get them? Carotene is orange and comes from orange vegetables. Melanin is yellow-brown to black and is produced by melanocytes in the basale.
Why do some people have darker skin? The melanosomes are larger and they transfer melanosomes as far up as S. granulosum
Lentigos are like freckles but are due to irregular melanocytes. What do we call them on older individuals with pale skin? Senile lentigos, or liver spots
How does UV exposure cause wrinkling? it harms fibroblasts, impairing maintenance of dermis.
When exposed to sunlight, epidermal cells in the s. spinosum and s. Basale turn a sterol into vitamin D, also known as... Cholecalciferol
The liver converts cholecalciferol into an intermediate, which the kidneys use to synthesize calcitriol, which does what? Allows for normal absorption of Ca and P by the small intestine. Not enough will impair bone growth/maintenance or cause rickets.
Name the peptide growth factor that promotes divisions of basal cells in s. basale and s. spinosum, accelerates keratinization, and stimulates glandular secretions Epidermal Growth Factor
Name the 2 layers of the dermis Superficial papillary, deeper reticular
Which dermal layer consists of areolar tissues, capillaries, lymphatics, and sensory neurons. Papillary, named from dermal papillae that project between epidermal ridges.
Which dermal layer consists of dense irregular connective tissue with collagen and elastic fibers that extend up into the papillary layer and down into the hypodermis? Reticular layer
Name for inflammation of the skin that primarily involves the papillary layer Dermatitis
Properties of flexibility and resilience from elastin and collagen respectively, are collectively known as... skin turgor, which is maintained by water content
Drug derivative of vitamin A Tretinoin, aka Retin-A
Parallel bundles oriented to resist forces applied to skin during normal movement Cleavage (tension) lines
Name of the network of arteries along the border of the hypodermis and reticular layer Cutaneous plexus
Name of network of small arteries branching to provide epidermis-dermis boundary with blood Papillary plexus
Deeper layers of the epidermis contain tactile cells monitored by monitored by sensory terminals known as... tactile discs
Receptors sensitive to light touch tactile corpuscles, in dermal papillae
Receptors sensitive to deep pressure and vibration Lamellated corpuscles, in reticular layer
The hypodermis is quite elastic, consisting of these two tissues... areolar and adipose
Why are accessory structures like hair, sebaceous and sweat glands, and nails called "epidermal derivatives"? During embryological development these structures originate from the epidermis
In the dermis, each follicle is wrapped in a dense connective tissue sheath of sensory nerves called a... root hair plexus
What anchors the hair into the skin Hair root
"peach fuz" (velvet) Vellus hairs
Heavy, deeply pigmented hairs Terminal hairs
Sebaceous glands are holocrine glands that discharge... oily lipid secretions (sebum) into hair follicles or out through sebaceous follicles
Seborrheic dermatitis on babies cradle cap
Name the two coiled, tubular sudoriferous (sweat) glands? Apocrine and merocrine
When do apocrine glands begin secreting? Puberty. It produces sticky, stinky armpit and crotch sweat.
How are apocrine secretions discharged? Myoepithelial cells surround secretory cells
Another word for merocrine sweat glands eccrine
These smaller, more abundant merocrine/eccrine sweat glands are responsible for what kind of perspiration? Sensible. 99% water, slightly acidic pH, contains electrolytes.
Merocrine/eccrine sweat glands' purpose: Cooling skin, excreting water and electrolytes, providing protection from environment (dermicidin=abx)
What type of glands are modified into mammary glands by sex and pituitary hormones? Apocrine
Ceruminous (earwax) glands are modified from what type of glands? Sweat
What controls the activation and deactivation of sebaceous glands and apocrine sweat glands? Autonomic nervous system (subconscious)
Created by: jenissing