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pharm chptr 20

Pharmacology-Anti-infective Drugs....Chapter 20

Anti-infective medications are commonly referred to as antibiotics.
Antibiotics are effective against many types of bacteria.
Antibiotics are not effective against any viral infection.
For antibiotics to be effective against a bacterial infection they must be taken on time and until the prescription is completed.
Example: If an antibiotic prescription is written Trimox 250 mg po q.i.d. and there are 40 doses, the patient must take the medication every 6 hours around the clock for 10 days.
If the prescription of antibiotics is not followed, the infection can remain and the possibility of a resistant strain of bacteria can be created
Bacteria are identified by using a staining technique.
Bacteria that stain pink are called gram negative.
Bacteria that stain violet are called gram positive.
Broad spectrum antibiotics are effective against a variety of different types of bacteria.
Antibiotics can reduce the effectiveness of an influenza vaccination.
Sulfonamide antibiotics are commonly referred to as “sulfa drugs.”
The following medications will be classified as sulfonamide antibiotics: 1. sulfadiazine. 2. sulfisoxazole AKA Gantrisin. 3. trimethoprim (TMP) and sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) (free) AKA Bactrim or Septra.
Penicillin is abbreviated PCN.
The following medications will be classified as penicillin antibiotics: 1. amoxicillin AKA Amoxil or Trimox. 2. ampicillin AKA Principen. 3. dicloxacillin. 4. nafcillin. 5. oxacillin. 6. penicillin AKA Pfizerpen,Bicillin,Permapen. 7. piperacillin. 8. ticarcillin AKA Ticar. 9. Augmentin.
Penicillin (PCN) resistant bacteria produce an antagonistic enzyme called penicillinase.
MRSA stands for methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus.
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to the penicillin antibiotics: methicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, and oxacillin.
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is normally found in 1% of the general population.
The most common place to find methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a hospital or nursing facility.
Most methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are not serious but some can be life threatening.
Conditions most susceptible to methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection include: 1. Diabetes mellitus (DM). 2. Cancer (Ca). 3. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Outbreaks of community associated methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (CAMRSA) have been seen where people share close quarters such as schools, gyms, and day care centers.
The most effective technique to prevent methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is proper hand washing.
PRSP stands for penicillin resistant streptococcus pneumonia.
The following medications will be classified as cephalosporin antibiotics: 1.cefadroxil 2.Duricef 3.cefazolin 4.cephalexin 5.Keflex 6.cefaclor 8.cefditoren 9.Spectracef 10.cefotetan 11.Cefotan 12.cefoxitin 13.Mefoxin 14.cefprozil 15.Cefzil 16.cefuroxime 17.Ceftin 18.Zinacef 19.cefdinir 20.Omnicef
Continued: medications that are classified as cephalosporin antibiotics: 21.cefepime 23.cefixime 25.cefoperazone 26.Cefobid 27.cefotaxime 29.cefpodoxime 31.ceftazidime 32.Tazicef 35.ceftibuten 37.ceftizoxime 38.Cefizox 39.ceftriaxone 40.Rocephin
Odd named medications that are classified as cephalosporin antibiotics" 7.Ceclor 22.Maxipime 24.Suprax 28.Claforan 30.Vantin 33.Ceptaz 34.Fortaz 36.Cedax
Methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is resistant to cephalosporin antibiotics.
Many patients who are allergic to penicillin (PCN) antibiotics are also allergic to cephalosporin antibiotics.
The following medications will be classified as aminoglycoside antibiotics: 1. gentamicin AKA Garamycin. 2. kanamycin. 3. Kantrex. 4. amakacin. 5. Amakin. 6. neomycin. 7. paromomycin. 8. Humatin. 9. streptomycin. 10. tobramycin. 11. TOBI. 12. Tobrex.
The aminoglycoside antibiotics can be nephrotoxic and/or ototoxic.
The following medications will be classified as tetracycline antibiotics: 1. doxycycline AKA Vibramycin or Vibra-Tabs. 2. demeclocycline. 3. Declomycin. 4. Minocycline. 5. Dynacin. 6. Minocin. 7. tetracycline. 8. Sumycin
The following medications will be classified as miscellaneous antibiotics: Cipro AKA ciprofloxacin 2. Zithromax Z-Pak (azithromycin). 3. Biaxin. 4. Levaquin. 5. Floxin. 6. Avelox. 7. vancomycin. 8.erythromycin AKA E.E.S. or Eryzole or Eryderm or Eryc or EryPed or Pediazole or Erythrocin or Ery-Tab.
Cipro (ciprofloxacin) can lose effectiveness if combined with fruit juices.
Vancomycin is commonly used to treat methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
VRSA stands for vancomycin resistant staphylococcus aureus.
VRE stands for vancomycin resistant enterococcus.
Erythromycin drops (gtt) are commonly used to treat sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the eyes of neonates (newborns) {NB}.
Probenecid is a medication that prolongs the therapeutic blood levels of ampicillin and cephalosporins.
A class of medications that some antibiotics have an antagonistic effect upon are the oral contraceptive pills (OCP) AKA birth control pills (BCP).
AIDS stands for acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus.
Only 55 cases of occupational exposure has resulted in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection.
The “window period” for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is 2 weeks to 6 months.
The “window period” is the time between exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and detection with a blood test.
A person with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can transmit the virus to others during the window period.
The average incubation period between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposure and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is 2-8 years.
The diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs when the CD4 T lymphocyte count drops below 200 mm3 or an opportunistic infection occurs.
Opportunistic infections include: 1. PCP (pneumocystis carinii pneumonia). 2. TB (tuberculosis). 3. KS (Kaposi’s sarcoma). 4. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) I+II. 5. Candida albicans (candidiasis)
Herpes simplex virus I (HSVI) causes herpetic stomatitis AKA cold sores.
Herpes simplex virus II (HSVII) causes genital herpes.
Herpes zoster (chicken pox) causes shingles.
Candida albicans (candidiasis) causes vaginal yeast (fungal) infections and thrush.
Antiviral medications work by interfering with the reproductive cycle of the virus targeted.
Antiviral medications used to treat the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) include: 1. Retrovir (zidovudine). 2. Epivir (lamivudine). 3. Sustiva (efavirenz).
Retrovir (zidovudine), Epivir (lamivudine), and Sustiva (efavirenz) are routinely given in combination and called an “AIDS cocktail.”
These antiviral medications to treat the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) must be taken every day in order to prevent the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from developing a resistance.
Lithobid (lithium) is used to treat the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) because of the side effect of leukocytosis (elevated white blood cell count [WBC])
Leukocytosis means an elevated white blood cell count (WBC).
Lithobid (lithium) is primarily used to treat manic-depressive illness (MDI) AKA bipolar mental disorder (BMD).
Antiviral medications used to treat the HSVI include: 1. acyclovir AKA Zovirax. 2. Abreva.
Antiviral medications used to treat the HSVII include: 1. acyclovir AKA Zovirax. 2. Valtrex.
Antiviral medications used to treat herpes zoster include: 1. acyclovir AKA Zovirax. 2. Zostrix. 3. Valtrex.
Antiviral medications used to treat influenza A and B include: 1. Tamiflu. 2. Relenza. 3. Symmetrel.
Fungal infections (dermatophytosis) include: 1.Ringworm AKA tinea corporis 2.Athlete’s foot AKA tinea pedis 3.Jock itch-tinea cruris 4.Fungal infection of scalp-tinea capitis(cradle cap) 5.Candida albicans(candidiasis) vaginal yeast infection/thrush 6.Onychomycosis/fungal infection/ nails
Medications used to treat fungal infections (dermatophytosis) are called antifungals.
Antifungal medications include: 1. Diflucan AKA fluconazole. 2. Nizoral AKA ketoconazole. 3. amphotericin B AKA Fungizone. 4. Monistat or Vagistat AKA miconazole or tioconazole.
The bag or bottle containing intravenous (I.V.) I.V. fluid, connecting tubing, and a needle or flexible catheter inserted in the vein is called an intravenous (I.V.) line.
Intravenous (I.V.) infusion rate orders are usually expressed as mL/hour or cc/hour.
When an intravenous (I.V.) fluid is administered over several hours it is called an intravenous (I.V.) drip.
A drop (gt) is AKA minim.
A small bag/bottle of medication connected into the intravenous (I.V.) tubing and hung next to the main intravenous (I.V.) bag/bottle is called an intravenous piggyback (IVPB).
Intravenous (I.V.) tubing has rubber stoppers to inject medications called ports.
For a medication to reach the bloodstream immediately, it is injected into an intravenous (I.V.) port and is called an intravenous push (IVP).
Another name for an intravenous (I.V.) [push (I.V.P.)] loading dose is a bolus
A very slow infusion of intravenous (I.V.) fluid designed to prevent coagulation from occurring at the opening of the intravenous (I.V.) catheter is called keep vein open (KVO) AKA to keep open (TKO).
Intermittent administration of intravenous (I.V.) medications and fluids via an intravenous (I.V.) access site without the intravenous (I.V.) tubing or continuous intravenous (I.V.) infusion is called a reseal or heparin lock (“hep-lock”).
Heparin is classified as an anticoagulant.
A computer that controls the amount of intravenous (I.V.) solution delivered to a patient is called an infusion pump.
A programmable device allowing a patient to administer their own intravenous (I.V.) analgesic is called patient controlled analgesia (PCA).
A catheter inserted into a peripheral vein and advanced to the superior vena cava for prolonged intravenous (I.V.) therapy such as antineoplastics is called a peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC).
Common intravenous fluids (IVF) include: 1.D5W-dextrose 5% in water 2.D10W-dextrose 10% in water 3.D50W-dextrose 50% in water 4.NS or NSS-normal saline solution AKA 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) 5.1/2 NS-1/2 NSS-one half normal saline solution AKA 0.45% sodium chloride(NaCl)
Dextrose is one type of sugar.
The term saline means salt.
The salts of the body are also referred to as electrolytes (“lytes”) and include: sodium (Na), potassium (K), and chloride (Cl).
Common intravenous fluids (IVF) include (continued): 6.D5/NSS-dextrose 5% w/ 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.LR-lactated Ringer’s-Ringer’s lactate (RL) 8.D5/RL-dextrose 5% & Ringer's lactate 9.TPN-total parenteral nutrition AKA hyperalimentation (“hyperal”) 10.WB 11. PRBCs which stands for packed red
Ringer’s lactate is a solution made of fixed amounts of dextrose, sodium (Na), potassium (K), chloride (Cl), calcium (Ca), and lactate.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is complete nutrition provided through an intravenous (I.V.) catheter.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) will include: A. Intravenous (I.V.) lipids AKA Intralipid or Liposyn. Lipids are fats. B. Amino acids for protein creation. C. Salts (electrolytes). D. Sugar (dextrose). E. M.V.I. which stands for multivitamins for injection.
Whole blood (WB) contains: A. Erythrocytes (RBCs). B. Leukocytes (WBCs). C. Thrombocytes AKA platelets (clot cells). D. Plasma which is the liquid portion of the blood containing proteins and clotting factors.
Packed red blood cells (PRBC) are concentrated numbers of erythrocytes (RBCs) and very little plasma.
Cryoprecipitates are used to treat the genetic coagulopathy hemophilia.
Cryoprecipitates which refers to clotting factor(s).
FFP which stands for fresh frozen plasma.
Albumin (Alb.) which is a blood protein
Dextran which is a plasma volume expander
Blood products are commonly measured in units (U)
Thrombocytes AKA platelets (clot cells).
Plasma which is the liquid portion of the blood containing proteins and clotting factors
PRBCs which stands for packed red blood cells
WB which stands for whole blood
Lipids are fats
TPN which stands for total parenteral nutrition AKA hyperalimentation (“hyperal”)
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed