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Nissing Micro Ch5

Micro ch5 Microbial Metabolism (GLYCOLYSIS & KREBS)

Collection of controlled biochemical reactions Metabloism
Cells must accomplish these two fundamental tasks to reproduce Harvest energy, biosynthesis of new components
Processes that occur as a sequene of chemical reactions Metabolic pathways
Starting compound (substrate) can be converted into... End products, or intermediate molecules
Intermediates and end products can be used as precursor metabolites
Metabolic pathway that synthesizes larger molecules requiring energy anabolic
Metabolic pathway that breaks larger molecules into smaller products, releasing energy catabolic
The capacity to do work Energy
Stored energy as bonds between atoms potential
energy in motion, DOING work Kinetic
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be... converted from one form to another
Energy released from bonds free energy
Reactants have more free energy than products (released energy) Exergonic
Reactants have less free energy than products (took in energy) Endergonic
phosphate added to substrate Phosphorylation
Phosphorylation that uses chemcial energy Substrate level
Phosphorylation that uses energy from proton motive force Oxidative
Phosphorylation that uses the sun's energy photophosphorylation
Three important electron carriers (before reduction) NAD+, NADP+, FAD
Converts molecule into isomers of the molecule Isomerase
Uses water in a catabolic reaction Hydrolase
Anabolic reactions that create polymers polymerases
Moving electrons without catabolizing or anabolizing Oxidoreductases
Enzyme that can move a functional group from one molecule to another Transferase
Catabolic enzyme that does not require water lyases (just think Lyse-ase, for breakup-enzyme)
Anabolic reactions that link up molecules Ligases (LI for ligase or link)
Three parts of enzyme that make up a holoenzyme Cofactor (inorganic), Coenzyme (organic), Apoenzyme (protein)
The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme to form an... enzyme/substrate complex
Term that means the clamping down, or binding, of a substrate onto an enzyme that changes its shape induced fit
things that can influence the rate of enzymatic reactions Temp, pH, enzyme/substrate concentration, presence of inhibitors
Substance that blocks an enzyme's active site, preventing a substrate from using the site without denaturing enzymes Competitive inhibitor
Substance that can bind to an enzyme other than the active site, changing the shape of the active site that may make it active or inactive Allosteric inhibitor or activator
Inhibition where a high level of product causes product to act as allosteric inhibitor in its own primary enzyme, thereby preventing more production of that product feedback inhibition, a noncompetitive inhibition
Glucose is the most common carbohydrate catabolized for energy in either of these two processes Cellular respiration and fermentation, both initiated by glycolysis
another name for glycolysis Embden Meyerhoff Pathway
Where does glycolysis occur in the cytoplasm of most cells
What happens in glycolysis? a 6-C sugar is split into 2 3-C sugar molecules called pyruvate
What is the relationship between dihydroxyacetone Phosphate and Glyceraldehyde 3-Phpsphate They are isomers, and the DHAP will become the G3P, so they both will behave the same for the remainder of the glycolysis process
Name the two major classes or metabolic reaction Catabolism (breaking down) and anabolism (biosynthesis)
an electron acceptor is said to be... reduced. It accepted an electron, with has a negative charge, therefore it reduced it's charge
An electron donor is said to be... Oxidized.
What are the three ways a chemical can be oxidized? Loss of an electron, loss of a hydrogen atom, gain of an oxygen atom
Phosphorylation where phosphate from one organic compound is transfered to ADP Substrate level
Phosphorylation where energy from redox reactions attach inorganic phosphate to ADP Oxidative
Phosphorylation where light energy adds inorganic phosphate to ADP PHOTOphosphorylation
Organic catalysts Enzymes
An enzyme's substrate is... the molecule which that enzyme works upon
what does a hydrolase do? add water molecules in decomposition process of hydrolysis (catabolic)
what does isomerase do? rearrange atoms in a molecule without adding or removing anything (neither anabolic nor catabolic)
What do ligases and polymerases do? join two molecules together (anabolic)
What dos lyase do? split large molecules (catabolic)
What does Oxidoreductase do? Remove/oxidize and add/reduce electrons to substrates. (anabolic and catabolic)
What does transferase do? transfer functional groups from one molecule to another (neither anabolic nor catabolic)
In what way do enzymes alter activation energy? They lower the activation energy necessary to trigger a chemical reaction. If the activation energy requirement remained high, it would cook the cell (heat=energy)
What is the induced-fit model of enzymes? A description of enzyme-substrate specificity referring to the change of shape when bound, as if the "lock" had grasped the "key"
What type of inhibitor binds to an allosteric site, changing the shape of an enzyme so that it cannot work on its substrate? Noncompetitive inhibitor, because it isn't competing for the same active site
What type of noncompetitive inhibitor might change an enzyme's substrate? excitatory. When the inhibitor binds to the alosteric site, it changes the enzyme in such a way that the active site's shape now works for a different enzyme.
What type of noncompetitive inhibitor was once an end-product of the reaction specific to its own enzyme/substrate reaction? Feedback inhibition, also negative feedback, or end-product inhibition
When glucose is catabolized via cellular respiration, what are the end products? CO2 and H2O
When glucose is catabolized via fermentation, what are the end products? organic waste
What are the products of the lysis stage of glycolysis? Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and dihydroxyacetone phosphate
In glycolysis, a phosphate molecule is transfered from the PEP to the ADP forming ATP. What is this direct transfer called? Substrate-level phosphorylation
What is the net energy yield of glycolysis? 2 ATP and 2 NADH
After glucose has been oxidized, the cell uses the resultant pyruvic acid molecules to complete either... cellular respiration or fermentation
This is a metabolic process that involves the complete oxidation of substrate molecules and the production of ATP by a series of redox reactions. Cellular Respiration
What happens in the Transition, or Acetyl-CoA stage? Acetyl-CoA is synthesized by the decarboxylation of pyruvic acid. This produces one CO2 and one NADH.
Where does the Krebs Cycle occur in prokaryotes and eukaryotes? Prokaryotes: cytosol. Eukaryotes: Mitochondrial matrix
2 other names for the Krebs Cycle tricarboxylic acid cycle, citric acid cycle
In an organism where the final electron acceptor of the ETC is O2, which combines to generate H2o, these organisms are called... Aerobes, conducting aerobic respiration
What is the final electron acceptor of anaerobic respiration? Some inorganic molecule other than O2, like sulfide gas, Nitrogen, or methane.
Term for the use of ion gradients to generate ATP, ie, ATP is synthesized using energy released by flow of ions down electrochemical gradient across a membrane Chemiosmosis
Created by: jenissing