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Nissing AP Ch4

A&P Ch4 Tissue level of organization

If you find errors PLEASE email me so I can fix them. Totallyjen@gmail.com
Cell types arranged in various combinations with discrete structural and functional properties Tissues
Tissues in combination working to perform a specific function. Organ
The study of tissues histology
Type of tissue that lines internal passageways and chambers Epithelial tissue
Type of tissue which transports materials, and stores energy reserves Connective tissue
Type of that carries information from one part of the body to another in the form of electrical impulses Neural tissue
Type of tissue specialized for contraction Muscle tissue
Type of tissue which provides structural support for other tissues Connective tissue
Type of tissue which forms glands Epithelial tissue
Type of tissue which fills internal space Connective tissue
Type of tissue that covers exposed surfaces Epithelial tissue
Two types of structure included in epithelial tissue epithelia and glands
What does epithelia do? cover internal or external surfaces in layers
What do glands do? produce fluid secretions
Why are glands included in the epithelial group of tissues? They are either attached to or derived from epithelia
In epithelia, cells are bound closely together by interconnections called... cell junctions
This term refers to the epithelial presence of an exposed surface and a base polarity
What do we call the exposed surface of epithelial tissue? apical
What do we call the attached surface of epithelial tissue? basal lamina or basement membrane
What two tissues create the attachment ability of a basal lamina? The basal surface of the epithelium and the underlying connective tissue
Why must epithelial cells obtain nutrients by diffusion or absorption across epithelial surface? It is avascular, meaning it lacks blood vessels
The rate of regeneration of epithelial cells is typically much faster than that of other tissues because... it is continuously replaced through stem cell divisions in the epithelium
Name the 4 essential functions of epithelial tissue Protection, absorption, sensation, secretion
Epithelial cells that produce secretions gland cells
In this type of tissue, most or all the epithelial cells produce secretions Glandular epithelium
What are the two destinations and functions of glandular secretions? surface (physical protection or temperature regulation) or interstitial fluid and blood (chemical messengers)
What are the 3 specialized categories into which epithelial cells fall. Hint: it relates to fluids 1) make secretions 2) move fluids through epithelium 3) move fluids over epithelial surface
What are the two functional regions of epithelial cells? Apical surface (exposed) and basolateral surface (attachment)
These are often present on epithelial cells that line internal passageways, especially where absorption and secretion occur Microvilli
The presence of microvilli increases the surface area by as much as ... 20 times
A typical ciliated epithelium cell contains about 250 cilia that move in what way? they beat in a coordinated manner, bathing the surface of the cell in fluid and moving the fluid in one direction
What is the result of damage or injury to ciliated epithelium by abrasion or exposure to toxic compounds like nicotine or CO? It can stop ciliated movement, block the protective flow of mucus, and possibly lead to infection or disease
Transmembrane proteins that interconnect large areas of opposing plasma membranes CAMs, Cell Adhesion Molecules, bind to eachother and to extracellcular molecules
CAMs on the basolateral surface of an epithelium help bind the cell to the ... underlying basement membrane
Membranes of adjacent cells may be bonded by a thin layer of proteoglycans that contain these polysaccharide derivatives glycosaminoglycans, like hyaluronan (hayaluronic acid)
In this cell junction, the lipid portions of the two plasma membranes are tightly bound together by interlocking membrane proteins. tight junction
Inferior to cells bound by tight junctions is a band that encircles the cells and binds them to their neighbors, called... Adhesion belt
Explain why epithelial cells with tight junctions are found lining tubes such as the intestinal tract. They isolate contents of the lumen from the basolateral surfaces of the cell, preventing enzymes, acids, and waste from autodigestion
Type of cell junction where two cells are held together by two interlocking transmembrane proteins called connexons Gap Junction
What type of proteins are connexons? Channel proteins common in epithelial cells where movement of ions helps coordinate functions such as cilia beating. Also in other tissues like cardiac and smooth muscle
Very strong cell junction involving CAMs and proteglycans, which link opposing plasma membranes and resist stretching and twisting Desmosome (Desmos=ligament, soma=body)
Desmosome junctions are formed between two cells whose cytoskeletons are connected by a complex known as a... dense area
Type of desmosome described as small discs connected to bands of intermediate filaments, which stabilize the shape of the cell Spot desmosome
Type of desmosome that resemble half of a spot desmosome, attaching a cell to extracellular filaments in the basement membrane Hemidesmosome (hemi=half)
The layer of the basement closer to the epithelium containing glycoproteins and a network of fine protein filaments Clear Layer, Secreted by adjacent epithelial cells
What is the role of the clear layer of the basement membrane? restricts movement of proteins and other large molecules from underlying connective tissue
The layer of the basement deeper to the epithelium containing bundles of coarse protein fibers Dense Layer, Produced by connective tissue cells
What connects epithelial cells to the composite basement membrane? Hemidesmosomes
What is the role of the Dense Layer of the basement membrane? It gives strength to the basement membrane and acts as a filter between epithelium and adjacent tissues
What type of cells continue dividing in order for epithelium to maintain its structure? stem cells, or germinative cells, located in a relatively protected location near the basement membrane
In what way must epithelial cells be viewed to determine their shape? A perpendicular section showing both the exposed surface and the basement membrane
In sectional view, this cell shape appears thin and flat squamous
In sectional view, this cell shape appears like little boxes cuboidal
In sectional view, this cell shape appears tall like relatively slender rectangles columnar
If only one layer of cells covers the basement membrane, then that layer is a... simple epithelium
All the cells of a simple epithelium has the characteristic of uniform distance from the nucleus to the basement from one cell to the next. This is because they have the same... polarity
simple epithelium are thin and fragile, so they exist in protected areas like... lining compartments and passageways, including body cavities, heart chambers, blood vessels, intestinal lining, and gas-exchange surfaces of lungs
In this type of epithelium, several layers of cells cover the basement membrane Stratified epithelium
Where might stratified epithelium be found? areas exposed to mechanical or chemical stress, like surface of skin and lining of mouth
Give shape: thin flat irregular cells that fit together like a jigsaw puzzle squamous
Give shape and type: Body's most delicate type, found in alveoli and lining of heart and blood vessels Simple squamous
Simple squamous epithelium that lines the ventral body cavities mesothelium; including pleura, peritoneum, pericardium
Simple squamous epithelial lining of inner surface of heart and blood vessels endothelium
Give shape and type: generally located where mechanical stresses are severe, like skin, and lining of mouth, esophagus, and anus stratified squamous
Apical layers of exposed epithelial cells are packed with filaments of protein called... keratin
Keratinized epithelium has these charachteristics: tough and water resistent
Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelia are situated in these places: oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, anus, vagina
Give shape and type: limited protection and occurs where secretion or absorption take place like in portions of kidney tubules Simple cuboidal
Give shape and type: located along ducts of sweat glands and larger ducts of mammary glands stratified cuboidal
Give shape: sometimes appear plump and cuboidal, sometimes appear flat and stratified. located in regions of the urinary system Transitional
Give shape: densely packed hexagonal cells with elongated nuclei crowded into a narrow band near the basement nuclei Columnar
Give shape and type: Typically found where absorption or secretion occurs, such as in the small intestine and stomach, protecting against chemical stress simple columnar epithelium
Give shape and type: located in portions of the respiratory tract, includes several types of cells with varying shapes and functions with varied distances between nuclei and exposed surface Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
What keeps pseudostratified cells from being truly stratified? every cell contacts the basement membrane
Give shape and type: line most of nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi, and portions of male reproductive tract ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Give shape and type: protect along portions of pharynx, epiglottis, anus, urethra, and some large excretory ducts. Stratified columnar epithelia
In stratified columnar epithelia with more than two layers, which cells are columnar? ONLY the superficial cells
Glands that release secretions into interstitial fluid endocrine glands (endo=inside)
Glands that release secretions into passages called ducts that open onto epithelial surface exocrine (exo=outside)
These fluids are released directly into the surrounding interstitial fluid endocrine secretions, aka hormones
Another word for endocrine glands ductless glands
Exocrine glands produce this fluid, which is discharged onto an epithelial surface through a duct. Name it and give 2 examples exocrine secretions (milk, sweat, digestive enzymes, tears)
Method of exocrine secretion in which exocytosis releases product, such as mucin, which mixes with water to form mucus. Also forms saliva and sweat. Merocrine secretion (think of the M's - merocrine secretion makes mucin which makes mucus)
Method of exocrine secretion in which cytoplasm is lost as the apex of a cell becomes packed with secretory vesicles, and then is shed. Apocrine secretion (Think of a's - apex)
Method of exocrine secretion destroys the cell, which becomes entirely packed with products then bursts holocrine secretion
Type of exocrine secretion in which watery solutions and enzymes are produced, as in parotid salivery glands Serous glands
Type of exocrine secretion in which mucins are produced, as in sublingual salivary and submucosal glands of intestines. Mucous glands
Type of exocrine secretion in which contain more than one type of gland cell and may produce two different exocrine secretions, as in submandibular salivary glands Mixed exocrine glands
Structure of exocrine glands where independent, scattered gland cells produce exocrine secretions Unicellular glands
Structure of exocrine glands where glandular epithelia and aggregations of glands produce exocrine or endocrine secretions Multicellular glands
The only unicellular exocrine glands in the body, which secrete mucins Goblet cells, or mucous cells
Name the 2 places goblet cells are found? Among the pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium of the trachea, and the columnar epithelium of the intestines
The simplest multicellular exocrine gland, in which gland cells form an epithelium that releases secretions into an inner compartment secretory sheet
Where are secretory sheets found? lining the stomach, or set back from epithelial surface from which secretions travel through ducts to the surface
What is the difference between simple and compound ducts? Simple do not divide, compound divide one or more times
Glands whose cells form tubes tubular, may be straight or coiled
Glands whose cells form blind pockets alveolar (sac), acinar (chamber)
Term referring to several secretory areas sharing a duct Branched
Word meaning duct that divides one or more times compound
What is the difference between the terms compound and branched? Compound is a dividing DUCT. Branched refers to multiple GLANDS being served by one duct.
Tissue responsible for connecting epithelial tissue to the rest of the body, as well as forming bone, fat, and blood connective tissue
What are three functions of the connective tissue? Provide structure, store energy reserves, transport materials through body, protect organs, defend body against microbes, transporting fluids and dissolved materials
The extracellular fibers together with ground substance constitute connective tissue's... matrix
Category of connective tissue with many types of cells and extracellular fibers in a syrupy ground substance Connective tissue proper
Give an example of loose connective tissue proper adipose, aerolar, reticular. Mucous in embryos.
Give an example of dense connective tissue proper tendons, ligaments
Category of connective tissue with distinctive cells suspended in watery matrix containing dissolved proteins Fluid connective tissues
What are the two types of fluid connective tissues? blood and lymph
Category of connective tissue with densely packed fibers and less diverse cells Supporting connective tissues
Two types of supporting connective tissue cartilage (gel with fiber) and bone (calcified with mineral deposits)
Only cell always present in connective tissue proper, secrete hyaluronan and proteins, which together with extracellular fluid make ground substance viscous Fibroblasts
Spindle shaped cells that maintain connective tissue fibers of connective tissue proper Fibrocytes
AKA fat cells, contains enormous vacuole or lipid droplet which squeezes organelles and cytoplasm to one side. Found in hypodermos Adipocytes
Stem cells present in many connective tissues, respond to local injury or infection by dividing to produce daughter cells that then differentiate mesenchymal cells
Large amoeboid cells scattered through the matrix, engulfing damaged cells or pathogens. Important in mobilizing defenses by releasing "attack" chemicals Macrophage
Small, mobile connective tissue cells that are common near blood vessels containing histamine and heparin Mast cells and basophils
released after injury or infection, these chemicals stimulate local inflammation Histamine
travel through tissues and increase in numbers whenever tissue damage occurs lymphocytes
Lymphocytes may develop into these cells, which produce antibodies plasma cells
Phagocytic blood cells that move through connective tissues and are attracted to chemicals released by macrophages and mast cells Microphages
Two types of microphage neutrophil and eosinophil
synthesize and store malanin, common in epithelium of skin and eye tissues Melanocytes
Connective tissue fiber that is long, straight, unbranched, flexible, non stretchin. Make up tendons and ligaments Collagen fibers
Connective tissue fiber that is thin, BRANCHING, interwoven, tough and flexible, make up parenchyma of organs that stabilize them reticular fibers
Connective tissue fiber that is branched, wavy, not very strong, very flexible and stretchable and make up ligaments that interconnect vertebrae Elastic fibers
embryonic connective tissue made up of star shaped stem cells separated by a matrix with very fine protein filaments Mesenchyme
Loose connective tissue of embryo and umbilical cord Mucous connective tissue, or wharton's jelly
Type of connective tissue that is considered "packing materials" that fill space, cushion and stabilize cells, and support epithelia Loose connective tissues
Type of connective tissue that's loose, irregular, with open framework. Return to original shape after pressured. Separate skin from deeper structures. Contain capillaries. Areolar tissue (loose irregular)
Connective tissue containing lots of adipocytes adipose tissues
Type of adipose tissue most common in adults white fat
Type of adipose tissue that is highly vascularized and contains numerous mitochondria responsible for warming little bodies brown fat
Loose connective tissue in spleen and liver, produces stroma that supports parenchyma of these organs reticular tissue
Most of dense connective tissues is occupied by fibers, and the most abundant is... collagen
In tendons and ligaments, collagen fibers are parallel to each other, tightly packed, and aligned with the force applied to the tissue. This is an example of... Dense regular connective tissue
A tendinous sheet that attaches a broad, flat muscle to another muscle or to several bones in skull, lower back, abdomen, hands, feet. aponeurosis
Type of connective tissue that forms around bones, cartilage, and organs, is in skin, and is very strong Dense irregular connective tissue
Name for dense irregular connective tissue surrounding organs such as liver, kidneys, spleen, and joint cavities capsule
type of dense regular tissue dominated by elastic fibers that stabilize positions of vertebrae of spinal column elastic tissue
Watery matrix of blood plasma
Cells and cell fragments of blood (red, white, and platelets) formed elements
Where do lymphatic vessels ultimately return lymph? veins near the heart
Matrix of cartilage is a firm gel that contains polysaccharide derivatives or mucopolysaccharides called... chondroitin sulfates
Cartilage cells chondrocytes
small chambers occupied by chondrocytes lacunae (means lakes)
Avascular connective tissue cartilage
Why do blood vessels not grow into cartilage? Chondrocytes produce antiangiogenesis factor, which is being tested as a potential anticancer agent
Made up of fibrous dense outer layer and inner cellular layer, this surrounds the chondroitin in cartilage Perichondrium
Cartilage growth method where chondrocytes in cartilage undergo cell division, enlarging cartilage from within. Ends in adolescence interstitial growth
Cartilage growth where new layers are added to the surface, innermost cells differentiate into chondrocytes which produce matrix. Occurs due to damage or GH stimulation appositional growth
Type of cartilage most common in body, surrounded by dense perichondrium found in rib connections, nasal cartilage, articulating joints Hyaline cartilage
Type of cartilage that is extremely resilient and flexible, found in outer ear, epiglottis, auditory tube, cuneiform (larynx) Elastic cartilage
Type of cartilage that has little ground substance, has dense collagen fibers, and is found in pads between vertebrae, between pubic bones, around tendons, and around/within joints like the knee Fibrocartilage
histolotical title for bone osseous tissue
What are the 2 composites of osseous tissue matrix? (2/3) calcium salts and collagen fibers
Lacunae of bone tissue contain... osteocytes
Long slender passageways in bone matrix that allow osteocytes to communicate with blood vessels canaliculi
What covers bone? hyaline cartilage at joints, periosteum over the rest
types of fibers collagenous, elastic, reticular
Avascular tissue Epithelial and cartilage
Most prevalent cell type in connective tissue fibroblast, which produces collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers
What is the difference between a chondroblast and a chondrocyte? When the chondroblast is completely enclosed in a lacuna, it cannot secrete anymore and becomes a chondrocyte. blast=secrete chondroitin
Name the two types of living cells in cartilage and give their role Fibroblasts (secrete elastic) and chondrocytes (secrete chondroitin)
What is different between elastic and hyaline cartilage? It's got elastic fibers in the chondroitin that make it more flexible
What is different between fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage? fibrocartilage has collagen fibers instead of elastic fibers
Where do you find dense, or compact, bone? in the shaft of long bones
What is the function of the osteon? to make sure the bones get nutrients they need
What do osteocytes secrete? Nothing. They are in a full lacuna. Before, when they had room, they were osteoblasts which secreted Ca salts.
What do osteoclasts do? Break bone down, shape bone
Most long bones are derived from... Cartilagenous structures
Where is loose irregular connective tissue found? hypodermis, fascia around muscles
where do you find hyaline cartilage? articular + costal cartilage, trachea, bronchi
types of nonliving matrix in cartilage Chondroitin, possibly elastin and/or collagen
What is the Haversian canal? The central osteonic canal in the center of an osteon
bone cell that is multinucleate because of all the enzymes they have to secrete osteoclast
Where are the branching reticular fibers found? lymph nodes, spleen
Which fiber usually stains black? Purple? Black: Elastin Purple: Collagen
What are the concentric rings around the central canal called? lamella
Created by: jenissing