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pharm ch 15

Phamacology Neurological Drugs chapter 15

When groups of neurons (nerve cells in the brain) spontaneously begin to send out electrical impulses in an abnormal, uncontrolled (electrical storm) way it is called epilepsy.
Grand mal seizures are characterized by: 1. LOC (loss of consciousness). 2. Violent rapid contraction and relaxation of the muscles (tonic-clonic seizures). 3. Tongue biting. 4. Incontinence (loss of bowel and/or bladder control).
Petit mal seizures are characterized by: 1. Disorientation. 2. Twitching (facial).
Petit mal seizures are AKA absence seizures
Absence seizures are more common in children.
Narcolepsy is a type of absence seizure characterized by an unexpected sudden LOC.
A warning sign or symptom of an impending seizure is called an aura (sensory disturbances).
The period of time just after a seizure when the victim is confused is called the postictal period (5-30 minutes).
Medications used to treat seizures are called antiseizure medications or antiepileptics or anticonvulsants. AAA
Antiseizure medications include: 1. Dilantin AKA phenytoin. 2. Luminal AKA phenobarbital (“phenobarb”). 3. Lamictal. 4. Keppra. 5. Topamax.
Use of Topamax during pregnancy (gestation) has been linked to birth defects such as cleft labia and/or palate.
Extreme seizure activity is called status epilepticus.
A medication used to treat status epilepticus is Diastat AKA diazepam.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by (extreme dementia) an irreversible and progressive loss of neurons in the cerebral cortex.
Manifestations include progressive difficulty with memory, judgment, and reasoning AKA dementia.
Drugs to treat AD(Alzheimer's disease) include: 1. Aricept. 2. Exelon. 3. Namenda.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is characterized by: 1. Shaking tremors. 2. Muscle rigidity. 3. Bradykinesia (slowness of movement). 4. Mask-like facial expression. 5. Drooling. 6. Shuffling gait progressing to a loss of ability to ambulate.
PD (Parkinson's disease) is caused by a deficiency of a neurotransmitter in the brain called dopamine.
Drugs to treat PD (Parkinson's disease) include: 1. Duodopa or Parcopa or Sinemet AKA carbidopa + levodopa. 2. Requip. 3. Mirapex.
Mirapex is also used to treat restless leg syndrome (RLS).
Medications used to treat insomnia are called hypnotics.
Hypnotics include: 1. Ambien. 2. Lunesta. 3. Rozerem. 4. Restoril AKA temazepam. 5. Dalmane AKA flurazepam.
OTC hypnotics include: 1. Nytol. 2. Sominex.
These OTC hypnotics contain Benadryl AKA diphenhydramine.
Benadryl (diphenhydramine) is also classified as an antihistamine.
A common side effect of antihistamines is drowsiness.
Created by: Patti Belfi Reed Patti Belfi Reed