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QuestionAnswer
carbon likes to form bonds with other carbons to creat 8 in outer shell
water is critical to life all orgs are 70-90% water. water has unique props props stem from structure of molecule plants use water as a force for biochemical rxns use its force to grow- to push cells out
water two important bonding structures polar covalent bond around O hydrogen bond-
hydrogen bond slightly positive h of one water molecule is attracted to the O of another which is -
porps of water making life possible good solvent cohesion and adhesion high surface tension high heat capacity high heat of vaporization varing density
high heat capacity many H bonds ling water molecules and allow water to absorb heat with out greatly changing its temp -temp rises and falls slowly
high heat of vaporization takes alot of E to break H bonds for evaporation -heat is dispelled as water evaporates
freezing poiont depression low freezing pt
water tends to stay at pretty ____distances from eachother equal
vacuole in a plant is a large space bc its packed with H20
plant root, shoot, leaves
vegitative stage growing stage of plants
reproductive stage E used to make flowers
water potential ability to do work
fork w= fork solute + fork pressure
fork = potential
fork water always wants to be equal
!!!!! water wants to go where forkS(solute) is negative
water potential used in plants to drive substances up and down plant
alot of materials can stay in plant vacuole
phloem pressure driven flow
apoplastic loading loading occurs at end of mesophyl cells, goes through cell wall (can go in btw cell) ( moves in cell walls)
symplastic cell entire transport is through membrane, has to go through cell( moves within cell cytoplasm)
temperature doesnt affect plants as much as humans
xylem move water
pits areas of cell wall alcking secondary wall but where primary wall is present
tracheary water transport Movement of water btw adjacent tracheids occurs exclusively throuugh pits in cell wall, water movement along vesssels occurs largely through unobstructed perforation plates in end walls
cavitation introduction of air bubbles in water column blocking water transport
if too muc hwater leaves allow dew through xylem tubes ( morning dew)
hairs and wax on leaves and stems reduce water loss from the above-ground parts of plants
somata permits gas exchange in stem and leaf but loses water
stomata guard cells specialized in pairs that open for gas exchange and let out water vapor- open at night -allow co2 in
water that excapes via stomata forms a layer which allows more gas to come in and less h20 to go otu
one cell layer where stomata are daf
stomata open/close inflate when full of water ( turged) so open, when low h20 then shrivel up and close
open or close depends on interactions btw hormones and ions --AbA Abscizic Acid tells them when to close or open
ABA abscizic Acid tells stomata to open or close, tells when plant is being eaten
stomatal appature how big gap is depends on how much water you have, varies on time of day
stomata open in response to blue light
stomata close in response to ABA
Why plants need....
Calcium wpn new leaves misshapen or stunted existing leaves remain green
wpn Nitrogen upper leaves light green lower leaves yellow bottom older leaves yellow and shrivelled
wpn zinc chlorosis between veins yellowing tips and margins spreading grey-brown spots
phosphate leaves darker than normal loss of leaves
iron young leaves are yellow/white with green veins mature leaves are normal
potassium yellowing tips at edges especially in young leaves dead or yellow patches or spots develop on leaves
mangenese yellow spots and or elongated holes between veins
magnesium lower leaves turn yellow from edge inwards veins remain green
macronutrients in plants nitrogen, phosphate, sulfur, magnesium, potassium, calcium
nicronutrients zinc, manganese, iron
magnesium important up to 2% of weight of plant
plants pull ions from soil via cotransporter
it is easy for plants to import cations
it is difficult to import anions
soil breakdown of materials in earths crust
number of water in soil is determined by size and shape of soil
soil organisms excrete substances that are critical to keep soil associated w eachother makes a kind of glue
fungi alot of soil fungi grows btw plant cells to get carbon and gives plant minerals in turn- symbiosis
fungi hyphi hold soil together
roots excret____ and ____ to make shield to get minerals in plant sugars and liquids
soil particles can be attracted to eachother bc of static attractions
things that help hold soil together and allows plant to take hold here
ellectrochemical gradients assist in getting minerals in
unions plants have alot of proton atpases and -100 to -150 mV plant cells
tonoplasts membrane around vacuole + membrane potential
nitrogen plants can take up small and large quantities usually receptors are very specific in molar range
casperian strips alot of toxic chemicals can just chill there
types of soil sand silt clay
sand biggest form of broken dwn rock that can be part of soil, not alot of surface area, harder for plants to live in sand
silt medium, stuff can grow -30-40 microns
clay smallest, need to have enough clayed silt in sand to be livable
plants cant take in nitrogen easily so nitrification and nitrocification
nitrificaiton nitrites (NO2-) to Nitrates (NO3-)
nitrocification Ammonium ( NH4-) to Nitrites ( NO2-)
Bacteria does nitrification and nitrocificaiton
plants take up nitrogen mainly in form of nitrates
nitrogenase complex very complez strucutre that brings up nitrogen in a plant
Alot of plants take up metals bc they are incorporated into infastructure of proteins
elements important in protens Fe, S, N
ammonium transporter for it and can be taken up and stored in vacuole and can be taken to plastid for conversion to glutamine,
AMT transporter that takes up Ammonium (NH4-)
TIP transporter that takes NH3 into vacuole for storage ( becomes NH4-) in vacuole again
Nitrate transporter a symporter of 2 H and a nitrate NO3-
Proton Pump actively pumps out H+ to keep down PH in cell bc of symport for nitrate
Nitrate Reductase (NR) makes Nitrate Nitrite NO3- to NO2- -in cytoplasm -can go to vacuole for storage or plastid for use
Nitrite Reductase in plastid -(NiR) -Makes Nitrite into NH4- (Ammonium)
GS-GOGAT 2 enzymes cooperate, Glutamine Synthas and GOGAT, -quickly change Ammonium to glutamine
glutamine -huge currency, source molecule for many nitrogenous containing compounds in plant
glutamine can be made in cytosol too and stored in plastid
symplastic transport going into cells -in soil nitrate not readily available-> plants depend on nutrients form bacteria
membrane depolarization bc of nitrate 250mic micM to 10 mM, depolarizes from -206mV to -118mV
so many places where nitrogen processing occurs and many protiens involved
atp required for alot of physporylation
phosphoruss one of most abundant things on earth, most of it useless to plants
key ways of getting phosphorus one of key ways plants get phosphate is animals either secret it or die-or other plants -mainly organic
inorganic phosphate takes millions of years of sedimentation formation of phosphate rock for plants to be able to take it up
import of phosphate against ecg -one H has to bind and hten a phosphate group binds for conformational change for phosphate in symport PHT1 transporter
Fungi and Phosphate fungi can take it in and incorporate it w other elements and secret it to root
Most transporters geared toward phosphates
carboxylates acids secreted by plants -acidify soil particles- inorganic P is released and taken up by PHT1
why do we need phosphate phospholipid bylayer, transpor proteins, etc
sulfur
Created by: ddrag on 2013-02-14



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