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Med Term Fall2013

bacillus bacteria that are rod-shaped
coccus bacteria that are round in shape
dipl/o pairs; bacteria that grow in pairs
staphyl/o bunches, like grapes; bacteria that grow in clusters
strepto/o twisted; bacteria that grow in twisted chains
alb white
chlor/o green
chrom/o color
cirrh/o orange-yellow
cyan/o blue
erythr/o red
leuk/o white
lutein/o saffron yellow
melan/o black
poli/o gray
rhod/o red
rubi/o reddish,redness
xanth/o yellowish
a, an without,not
acro extremeties; top or extreme point
aero air
aniso unequal
brady slow
de take away; remove
dia through (as in running through)
dif, dis apart, free from, separate
dys bad, painful, difficult
ec, ecto out, outside, outer
emia blood: condition of
end, endo within, inner
eu good, easy
extra outside, beyond
hemi one side, half
hemo blood
hetero different
homo same, resembling each other
hydro water
hyper above normal, excessive, beyond
hypo under, below normal
in in, into, not
iso equal, same
lip fat
mal bad, poor
mega large, great
megalo large (enlarged)
meno menses (menstruation)
noct night
nyct night
pan all, every
para beside, beyond, accessory to
per through
peri around
poly many, much
post following, after
pre before
pro preceding, coming before
pyo pus
re put back
super above, beyond
supra above, beyond
syn going together, united
tachy fast
nasal cavity nose, nares, cavity separated by septum
pharynx throat, cavity behind the nasal cavities and mouth
larynx voice organ, containing the vocal cords
trachea windpipe
lung two cone-shaped spongy organs consisting of alveoli, blood vessels, nerves and elastic tissue. Each is enveloped in a double-folded membrane called the pleura
parietal pleura the serous membrane that lines the thoracic (chest) cavity
visceral pleura membrane that covers the lungs. This membrane and the parietal membrane are close together. Between them is a thin film of lubricating fluid that prevents friction when they slide against each other.
bronchus one of the larger passages conveying air to (right or left principal lobe) and within the lungs
bronchioles one of the subdivisions of the branched bronchial tree
alveolus a small saclike dilation (outpocketing) of the alveolar ducts
diaphragm muscular partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in the process of breathing
abscess (lung) a localized collection of pus in a cavity formed by the disintegration of tissues
anthracosis accumulation of carbon deposits in the lung due to breathing smoke or coal dust, also known as black lung disease
ARDS adult (acute) respiratory distress syndrome
asbestosis lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles. Associated with development of mesothelioma, a type of lung cancer
asphyxiation suffocation
asthma spasm and narrowing of bronchi, leading the bronchial airway obstruction
atelectasis incomplete expansion of the lungs at birth, or collapse of the adult lung
bradypnea abnormally slow breathing
bronchiectasis chronic dilation of one or more bronchi
bronchitis inflammation of one or more bronchi
byssinosis lung disease resulting from inhaling cotton, flax, or hemp, also known as brown lung disease
carcinoma a malignant new growth made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate surrounding tissues and to give rise to metastases
coccidioidomycosis a respiratory infection caused by spore inhalation of Coccidiodes immitis, varying in severity from that of a common cold to symptoms resembling those of influenza; also called valley fever
COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary (lung) disease, especially emphysema, chronic bronchitis, and asthma
cor pulmonale heart failure from pulmonary disease
coryza profuse discharge from the mucous membrane of the nose; the common cold
cough a forceful expiration preceded by a preliminary inhalation. Usually caused by irritation of the airways from dust, smoke, infection, or mucus. Can be described as croupy, rasping, harsh, hollow, loose, dry, productive, brassy, bubbly or wracking.
cystic fibrosis generalized hereditary disorder of infants, children and young adults associated with malfunctioning of the pancreas and frequent respiratory infections
deviated septum defect in the wall between the nostrils that can cause partial or complete obstruction
diphtheria an acute bacteral infection primarily affecting the membranes of the nose, throat, or larynx accompanied by fever and pain
effusion escape of fluid; exudation or transudation
emphysema a pathologic accumulation of air in tissues or organs
epistaxis hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed
expectoration the act of spitting out saliva or coughing up material from the lungs
fibrosis formation of fibrous or scar tissue (in lungs) usually caused by previous infection
flail chest chest wall moves paradoxically with respiration, owing to multiple fractures of the ribs
"flu" popular name for influenza
hay fever a hypersenstive state, e.g., allergy to pollen
hemothorax blood in the pleural thoracic cavity
hiatal hernia protrustion of part of the stomach into the chest through the esophageal hiatus defect of the diaphragm
hiccup sharp respiratory sound with spasm of the glottis and diaphragm
histoplasmosis fungal infection of lungs, may be symptomatic or asymptomatic, resembling TB
hyaline glossy, translucent
hyaline membrane disease lack of surfactant due to a layer of hyaline material lining the alveoli, alveolar ducts, and bronchioles. Leading cause of neonatal deaths.
influenza an acute viral infectino of the respiratory tract; serious for the very young and old
laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
laryngotracheo-bronchitis inflammation of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi
lung abscess pus formed by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by white blood cells that have gone to a localized area to fight infection
pertussis acute upper respiratory infectious disease caused by bacterium Bordetella pertusis. Commonly called whooping cough.
pharyngitis inflammation of the pharnyx
pleural effusion accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, which compresses the underlying portion of the lung, resulting in dyspnea
pleurisy inflammation of the pleura
pneumoconiosis any lung disease, e.g., anthracosis, silicosis, caused by permanent deposition of substantial amounts of particulate matter in the lungs
pneumothorax a collection of gas or air in the pleural cavity, resulting from a perforation through the chest wall or the visceral pleura
rhinitis rhinorrhea inflammation of the nasal membrane; "runny nose"
SIDS sudden infant death syndrome, or crib death' cause unknown. Associated failure of synapse of nerves to activate the diaphragm
sinusitis inflammation of sinus
sneeze spasmodic contraction of muscles causing air to be expelled forcefully through the nose and mouth
streptococcal throat sore throat caused by the spore bactera Streptococcus
tonsillitis inflammation of the tonsils, especially the palatine tonsils
tuberculosis (TB) an infectious disease, marked by tubercles and caseous necrosis in tissues of the lung
URI upper respiratory infection, general term for colds or "flu"
wheezing a high-pitched, whistling sound from air movement through narrowed bronchioles during exhalation; symptom of asthma and COPD
whooping cough a respiratory infection caused by Bordetella pertusis, marked by peculiar paroxysms of cough, ending in a prolonged crowing or whooping respiration
aerosol a medication that can be sprayed from a contained to relieve bronchial distress, especially asthma
anoxia without oxygen
apnea temporary cessation of breathing; asphyxia
bifurcation a division into two branches, e.g., bronchi
blood gases oxygen, carbon dioxide, and other gases in the blood
bronchodilator an agent capable of dilating the bronchi
bronchoscope an instrument for inspecting the bronchi
bronchoscopy lung examination using a bronchoscope
bronchospasm spasmodic contraction of bronchi muscles, as in asthma
Cheyne-Stokes breathing characterized by waxing and waning of the depth of respiration: the patient breathes deeply a short time and then breathes slightly or stops altogeher. The cycle repeats.
CO2 carbon dioxide; an odorless, colorless gas resulting from oxidation of carbon, formed in the tissues and eliminated by the lungs
consolidation solidification of lung tissue, as in pneumonia
CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation; artificial means of providing circulation and breathing during cardiac and respiratory arrest
cyanosis a bluish dicoloration of skin and mucous membranes caused by insufficient oxygen in the blood
dysphnia voice impairment; difficulty in speaking
dyspnea labored or difficult breathing
endotracheal (ET) tube an airway catheter inserted in the trachea during surgery and for a temporary airway in emergency situations (ET phone home)
expectorant an agent that promotes expectoration (loosening of secretions)
hemoptysis the spitting of blood or of blood-stained sputum (from the lungs)
hiatus a gap (opening), especially in the diaphragm
hilus part of lung where vessels, nerves, and bronchi enter
hypercapnia an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood
hyperventiliation increased rate and/or depth of respiration, e.g., from anxiety
hyposensitization the process of rendering hyposensitive, e.g., exposing a patient to an offending substances to reduce his or her sensitivity to the substances
hypoxia insufficient oxygen
IPPB intermittent positive pressure breathing, used as treatment with ventilation
Kussmaul breathing gasping, labored breathing, also called air hunger
laryngectomy excision of the larynx
laryngoscopy visual examination of the interior larynx with an instrument called a laryngoscope
lavage of sinuses the irrigation or washing out of sinuses
lobectomy excision of a lobe of the lung
Mantoux (test) TB skin test
O2 (Oxygen) constitutes about 20% of atmospheric air; inhaled and carried in the blood
orthopnea difficult breathing, except in the upright position
oximetry measurement of the oxygen saturation of arterial blood
palpation application of hands and fingers to external surfaces to detect abnormalities
parenchyma (lung) the essential elements or "working parts" of an organ, e.g.,alveoli in the lung
peak expiratory flow rate measurement of how fast a person can exhale using a small handheld device to monitor treatment in asthma or COPD
percussion and auscultation (P&A) striking the body (e.g. chest) with short, sharp blows of the fingers, and listening through a stethoscope for the sounds produced. Technique used by practitioners
perfusion the passage of a fluid through the vessels of a specific organ to supply nutrients and oxygen
pneumothorax air or gas in the pleural space; from trauma or from deliberate introduction; may be spontaneous
postural drainage drainage by placing the patient's head downward so that the trachea will be inclined below the affected area and the secretions mobilized
PPD purified protein derivative (TB test)
productive cough cough with spitting of material from the bronchi
pulmonary function tests to assess ventilatory status
rales, rhonchi an abnormal respiratory sound heard on auscultation, indicating some pathologic condition
rarefaction condition of being less dense, e.g., decreased density in x-ray films
residual air air remaining or left behind after expiration
respirator (ventilator) a device for giving artificial respiration or to assist in pulmonary ventilation
rhinoplasty plastic surgery of the nose
scan (lung, pleura) an image or a picture produced using radioactive isotopes, e.g., B-mode ultrasonography
SMR submucous resection, excision of a portion of the submucous membrane of the nose to correct a defect
SOB shortness of breath
spirometer (spirometry) an instrument for measuring air taken into and expelled from the lungs; spirometry is the measurement of lung capacity
sputum matter ejected from the trachea, bronchi, and lungs through the mouth
tachypnea very rapid respiration
thoracentesis surgical puncture of the chest wall into the parietal cavity to remove fluid
tine test TB test
tracheostomy creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, e.g., insertion of a tube to facilitate ventiliation
tracheotomy incision of the trachea through the skin and muscles of the neck
ventilator an apparatus to assist in pulmonary ventilation
vital capacity amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs after deep inspiration (pulmonary function test)
wheeze breathing with a raspy or whistling sound. Common symptom of asthma
x-ray examination visual record made using x-rays, for diagnostic examination of the chest; may be AP (anteroposterior) or Lat (side) views
Created by: tschrec